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- Second Language Acquisition
- Language Acquisition
- Universal Grammar
- Noam Chomsky
Bibliography 4 Pages 977 Words
The theory that there is a critical period for linguistic acquisition may be analysed through the indirect observation of cognitive learning to communicate. Whilst there are many human languages, all demonstrate a number of universal traits. This allows us to theorise that there is a critical period in which individuals may learn a language. The most significant comparison to justify this argument, is that of a young girl named Genie. Through her experience of learning her first language during the maturational stages of her life instead of infancy, we can take an insight into the biological and environmental factors in understanding speech.
Richard Meier (1991) argued, through indirect evidence, that there was a stage from infancy to maturity in which an individual has the ability to learn a language. Studies conducted on individuals conclude that throughout different stages of maturity, older individuals of the study were at a disadvantage to learn a second language and allow us to understand that there may be both a biological and psycholinguistic reason. It is already understood that children have a greater short-term memory over adults but a decreased attention span, which may be attributed to the biological process of neuron growth before puberty and the decreased requirement of older subjects to communicate verbally to fulfill their physical needs to survive. Indirectly we can argue that a baby crying is communicating for its physical needs to survive and therefore is the first step in communicating a language.
There is what is called a linguistic sensitivity in infancy; babies can hear all phonetic distinctions especially that of "Motherese". Motherese consists of a high pitch, repetitive voice, that is slowed with strong intonations and elevated contours. Through this modification in pronunciation we may suggest that infants can accumulate more information about speech, and learn more rapidly because they
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- Language Acquisition Essay
Language Acquisition Essay
Language is perceived as the way humans communicate through the use of spoken words, it involves particular system and styles in which we interact with one another (Oxford 2009). Possessing this ability to communicate through the use of language is thought to be a quintessential human trait (Pinker 2000). Learning a language, know as language acquisition, is something that every child does successfully within a few years. Language acquisition is in itself the development by which humans acquire the ability to perceive, produce and use words to understand and communicate. This capacity involves the picking up of diverse abilities including phonetics, syntax and an extensive vocabulary. This language might be vocal as with speech or
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A theory averting from Piagets’ work is by the American Linguist Noam Chomsky. He believed that language is innate, skills governed by inborn programmes (Mason). Noam claimed that we are all born with a set of rules, known as Universal Grammar, which every human encompasses and differences in languages is just a variation of the use of this rule. He believed this, as he found that children still had the ability to effectively and correctly learn language even though most people when they speak continuously make mistakes, change their minds or use abbreviations. Another reason for Noam’s theory is that Children do not merely imitate the language that they hear around them, they attain rules from what they hear and are able to use them successfully in creating their own sentences which they might not have heard before. This considerably varies from what most behaviourists believe. Noam alleged that when a child hears their
Theories of Language Acquisition Essay
Theories of Language Acquisition
The theories of language acquisition are essentially centred around
the nature nurture argument.
The theory that children have an innate capacity for language was
created by Noam Chomsky (1928- ) an American linguistic. This nativist
approach states that learning language is part of the genetic makeup
of human species and is nearly independent of any particular
experience which may occur after birth. Once a childs brain has been…Read MoreWords: 710 – Pages: 3
Language Acquisition and Acculturation Essay
Language is a medium of communication and a carrier of culture because all that people know about their origin is communicated to them using language. In most cases mother tongues are suitable in expressing ones way of life. The native language is the best in expressing basic societal affairs. Language is the key medium of communication and it should be used in its simplest form because the simpler the language the easier the communication (Diyanni 633-639).
‘Mother Tongue’ a story by Amy Tan tries…Read MoreWords: 1138 – Pages: 5
Comparing Theories of Language Acquisition and Language Development
The aim of this essay is to explore language acquisition and compare and contrast different theories of language acquisition and language development. Language in its most basic form is used to communicate our needs and wants. It encompasses a range of modes of delivery including signing, spoken and written words, posture, eye contact, facial expressions and gestures. So how do we learn ‘language’? Are we born with the skills for communication, or is it something that we have to learn or have taught…Read MoreWords: 2911 – Pages: 12
Essay on Age and Second Language Acquisition
Age and second language acquisition
For over sixty years scientists and linguists have been doing the researches about the second language acquisition and bilingualism among children. It has been discovered that second language acquisition is a parallel of the first language acquisition but also there are a lot of differences.
At the beginning it must be said what the bilingualism and second language acquisition are. SLA (Second Language Acquisition) refers to the process by which people learn…Read MoreWords: 2164 – Pages: 9
Second Language Acquisition Essay
several factors such as gender, L1 literacy, social context, and personality. In this term paper I will discuss how age and personality affect second language acquisition and the factors can be used in the language classroom to facilitate second language acquisition.
Age and Second Language Acquisition:
How age affects second language acquisition is an interesting topic for most of the educators who have to develop appropriate curriculum and instructional strategies for immigrant students of different…Read MoreWords: 1342 – Pages: 6
Essay Second Language Acquisition
Second Language Acquisition
The subject assignment consists of answering this question:
According to Swain, … producing the target language may be the trigger that forces the learner to pay attention to the means of expression needed in order to successfully convey his or her own intended meaning. (Swain 1985: 249)
In Swain’s view, learners need not only input, but output: they need to use language in order to learn it. Krashen, however, as recently as 2009, stated that:…Read MoreWords: 2697 – Pages: 11
Essay The Age Factor in Second Language Acquisition
Factor in Second Language Acquisition
There are many factors that affect second language acquisition (SLA). For example, SLA is affected by the role of the mother tongue, the role of gender differences, the role of personal differences and the role of age differences. The role of age differences is one of the most important factors that affect SLA. It is often claimed that children learn faster than adults. The younger the learner of a foreign language, the more effective…Read MoreWords: 3026 – Pages: 13
Explore the Effect of a Critical Period on Second Language Acquisition
Lenneberg (1967) proposed Critical Period Hypothesis (CPH) for the language development by examining abundance of behavioral and neurological evidence (Johnson & Newport, 1989; Du, 2010). There are four vital components in this hypothesis. To be specific, (1) the remarkable offsetting point of achieving ultimate language attainment like native speakers is around puberty (Hyltenstam & Abrahamsson, 2000); (2) either first or second language requiring fully development must occur within the period between…Read MoreWords: 2927 – Pages: 12
Essay Theories of first and second language acquisition
Theories of First and Second Language Acquisition
There are various theories that have been put forward to describe first and second language acquisition. This paper outlines similarities and difference between first and second language acquisition. Additionally key theoretical points on second language acquisition have been identified. Finally, an explanation of how I intend to use my understanding of language acquisition theory to inform my teaching practice will also be included…Read MoreWords: 1550 – Pages: 7
The Effects of Social Context on Bilingualism and Language Acquisition
How does the social context affect the rate of language development?
Suppose we have two children. Child A is an American child in a Spanish-speaking environment. He lives with his parents, both of whom are of American roots trying to adjust and cope with a language unfamiliar to them. None of them have sufficient knowledge in Spanish to be able to converse effectively with their neighbors. Child B, on the other hand, is an American child living in an English-speaking environment. He, like Child…Read MoreWords: 1796 – Pages: 8
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