How do I cite a source that has no author? – The MLA Style Center - BepalInfo

How do I cite a source that has no author? – The MLA Style Center

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Answered By: Jennifer Harris
Last Updated: Aug 23, 2018     Views: 52823

Generally speaking, if you cannot identify the author of a source, you move the title to the author position in the reference list/works cited and use a shortened version of the title for the in-text citation. If you cannot identify the publication date, you substitute n.d. for “no date.” Here are examples of how it works in the three major citation styles:

APA Style

Reference List (don’t forget to indent the second and subsequent lines):

Per the APA Manual (6th edition), p. 184 and 185:

In a reference to a work with no author, move the title to the author position, before the date of publication. A period follows the title.

All 33 Chile miners freed in flawless rescue. (2010, October 13). Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/39625809/ns/world_news-americas/

If no date is available, write n.d. in parentheses.

The College of William and Mary. (n.d.). College mission statement. Retrieved from http://www.wm.edu/about/administration/provost/mission/index.php

In-Text Citations

Per the APA Manual (6th edition), p. 176:

When a work has no identified author, cite in text the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. Use double quotation marks around the title of an article, a chapter, or a web page and italicize the title of a periodical, a book, a brochure or a report:    

on free care (“Study Finds,” 2007)

the book College Bound Seniors (2008)

For additional examples and tips on citing sources with no author or date in APA Style, check out the APA Style Blog’s post on  Missing Pieces , or the Purdue OWL ( Reference List , In-Text Citations ).

MLA Style

Works Cited (don’t forget to indent the second and subsequent lines):

Per the MLA Handbook (8th edition), p. 24-25:

If no author’s name is given for the article you are citing and there isn’t a corporate author that can be identified, begin the entry with the title. Ignore any "A", "An", or "The" when you alphabetize the entry.

“Where angels no longer fear to tread.” Economist 22 Mar. 2008: 89+.

If a book has no author’s or editor’s name on the title page, begin the entry with the title. Do not use "Anonymous" or "Anon".

American Heritage Guide to Contemporary Usage and Style. Houghton, 2005. 

Beowulf. Translated by Alan Sullivan and Timothy Murphy, edited by Sarah Anderson, Pearson, 2004.

When a source does not indicate the publisher or the date of publication, supply as much of the information as you can, enclosing it in square brackets to show it did not come from the source.  If a date is approximate, put after circa.  Do not use n.d. unless your professor asks you to do so.  See. 2.6.1. for more information or the MLA Style Center .

[circa 2008]

[2008?]

In-Text Citation (don’t forget to indent the second and subsequent lines):

Per the MLA Handbook (8th edition), p. 55 and 56:

In a parenthetical reference to a work alphabetized by title in the list of works cited, the full title (if brief) or a shortened version precedes the page, paragraph, section, or reference number or numbers (if any), unless the title appears in your text. When abbreviating the title, begin with the word by which it is alphabetized.

In-text:

International espionage was as prevalent as ever in the 1990s (“Decade”).

Works Cited format:

 “Decade of the Spy.” Newsweek 7 Mar. 1994: 26-27.

For additional examples and tips on citing sources with no author or date in MLA Style, check out the Purdue OWL ( Works Cited , Parenthetical Reference ).

Chicago Style

Per the Chicago Manual of Style (17th edition):

Notes and Bibliography method (p. 697 and 722) (don’t forget to indent the second and subsequent lines):

If the author or editor is unknown, the note or bibliography entry should normally begin with the title. An initial article is ignored in alphabetizing.

A True and Sincere Declaration of the Purpose and Ends of the Plantation Begun in Virginia, of the Degrees Which It Hath Received, and Means by Which It Hath Been Advanced (London, 1610).

A True and Sincere Declaration of the Purpose and Ends of the Plantation Begun in Virginia, of the Degrees Which It Hath Received, and Means by Which It Hath Been Advanced. London, 1610.

When the publication date of a printed work cannot be ascertained, the abbreviation n.d. takes the place of the year in the publication details. A guessed-at date may either be substituted (in brackets) or added.

Boston, n.d.

Edinburgh, [1750?] or Edinburgh, n.d., ca. 1750

Author-Date References (p. 801) (don’t forget to indent the second and subsequent lines):

If the author or editor is unknown, the reference list entry should normally begin with the title. An initial article is ignored in alphabetizing. Text citations may refer to a short form of the title but must include the first word (other than the initial article).

A True and Sincere Declaration of the Purpose and Ends of the Plantation Begun in Virginia, of the Degrees Which It Hath Received, and Means by Which It Hath Been Advanced. 1610. London.

(True and Sincere Declaration 1610)

When the publication date of a printed work cannot be ascertained, the abbreviation n.d. takes the place of the year in the reference list entry and text citations. Though it follows a period in the reference list, n.d. remains lowercased to avoid conflation with the author’s name; in text citations, it is preceded by a comma. A guessed-at date may be substituted (in brackets).

Nano, Jasmine L. [1750?] Title of Work…

(Nano [1750?])

(Nano, n.d.)

For additional information on citing sources with no author or date in Chicago Style, check out the  Purdue OWL .

More information:

  • Citing Your Sources Guide  (Shapiro Library)  

For further help please contact the  Wolak Learning Center  at 603.645.9606 (UC./On-Campus Students) and  Online Writing Center  at 866.721.1662 (Online/COCE Students) for assistance with citations.

You may also want to consider:

  • When do I need to cite sources?
  • How do I cite multiple sources by the same author in my paper?

This information is intended to be a guideline, not expert advice. Please be sure to speak to your professor about the appropriate way to cite sources with no identified author or publication date in your class assignments and projects.

References

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

The Modern Language Association of America. (2016). MLA Handbook. New York: Modern Language Association of America.

University of Chicago. (2017). The Chicago Manual of Style. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.


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    • MLA Citation Examples

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    MLA Citation Examples

    Based on the MLA Handbook, 8th Edition, 2016

    Some General Rules

    • In-Text Citations
    • Authors
    • Titles
    • Dates
    • Volume and Issue Numbers
    • Page Numbers
    • Citing a Source within a Source
    • DOIs and URLs

    Works Cited List Examples

    • Articles
      • Academic Journals
      • Magazines
      • Newspapers
      • Encyclopedia Articles
      • Book, Film, and Product Reviews
    • Books
    • E-books
    • Web Sites
    • Online Classroom Materials
    • Conference Papers
    • Technical and Research Reports
    • Dissertations and Theses
    • Images
    • Streaming Videos
    • Interviews and E-mail Messages

    Need More Help?

    For further guidance on MLA citations, please visit The MLA Style Center . You can also ask a librarian for help with citation-related questions. 

    Need the 7th Edition?

    See MLA Citation Examples: 7th Edition .


    Some General Rules

    In-Text Citations

    What You Are Citing

    In-Text Citation

    The entire work
    (or a work that has no page numbers)

    Include information in the text of your paper that will allow the reader to locate the source in your works cited list.

    If it is not possible to include this information in the text, follow the sentence where the citation needs to be made with an in-text citation containing only the name of the author.

    In his article "Allston Gothic," local historian Forman Jackson demonstrates how completely the neighborhood’s gruesome past has been forgotten by its residents.

    OR

    A recent newspaper article demonstrated just how thoroughly the neighborhood’s gruesome past has been forgotten by its residents (Jackson).

    A specific page

    (Cortois 70)

    If the author’s name is included in the text of the sentence where the citation takes place

    Jacobs has argued this point (190-210).

    Multi-volume set

    (Green 1: 112-14)
    "1" is the volume number.

    Citing multiple authors

    See Authors , below.

    Authors

    One author

    Example:
    Works Cited List

    Example:
    In-Text Citation

    Courtois, Charles A.

    (Cortois 70)

     

    Two authors

    Example:
    Works Cited List

    Example:
    In-Text Citation

    Martin, Jonathan A., and Christopher Jackson.

    (Martin and Jackson 127-28)

     

    Three or more authors

    Example:
    Works Cited List

    Example:
    In-Text Citation

    Fontela, Pablo, et al.

    If a work has more than 2 authors, MLA gives you the option of listing only the first author followed by "et al." (Latin for "and others").

    (Fontela et al. 153-54)

     

    Group author

    Example:
    Works Cited List

    Example:
    In-Text Citation

    Modern Language Association.

    (Modern Language Association 111)

     

    No authors listed

    Example:
    Works Cited List

    Example:
    In-Text Citation

    "Hints and Notions." The Decorator and Furnisher, vol. 6, no. 2, May 1885, pp. 61-68. JSTOR, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=www.jstor.org/stable/25584271.

    List that source by title in your works cited list. The title should be followed by the name of the source in the citation, and the remainder of the citation composed as appropriate for the source type. Alphabetize reference list entries beginning with a title using the primary word of the title (excluding a, an, or the).

    ("Hints and Notions" 61)

    In-text citations should include the title and the page number(s) of the text you are quoting or referring to, with the titles of articles in quotations, and the titles of books or Web sites italicized. In cases where the title contains a colon, use only the text before the colon in the in-text citation.

     

    Titles

    Titles of books, periodicals, art works, reports and Web sites are italicized. Please check the appropriate sample citation on this page to make sure you are using italics correctly.

    Dates

    With the exception of May, June and July, the names of the months must be abbreviated in MLA works cited lists as follows:

    • January = Jan.
    • February = Feb.
    • March = Mar.
    • April = Apr.
    • August = Aug.
    • September = Sept.
    • October= Oct.
    • November = Nov.
    • December = Dec.

    Undated Sources: When the source you are citing has no publication date, simply omit that part of the citation. Do not write "No date" or "N.d.".

    Source

    Example

    No date given

    Jane Austen Society of Australia. "Sense & Sensibility." Jane Austen Society of North America. Map. www.jasna.org/info/images/map-ss-1200.jpg.

    Volume and Issue Numbers

    Volume and issue numbers are often not available for articles in online periodicals. In these cases simply follow the date of the magazine or journal with a period in your works cited list citation, omitting the volume number where necessary.

    Source

    Example

    Journal volume and issue number available

    Child and Family Behavior Therapy, vol. 26, no.1, 2004, pp. 88-96.

    Online periodical where volume and issue numbers are not given

    Journal of Family Counseling, 2004.

    Page Numbers

    Source

    Example

    Page range whose first number is over 100

    125-35 (not 125-135)

    3200-22 (not 3200-3222)

    Do not repeat any numbers that can be easily inferred by the reader. This is done to minimize the length of works cited lists.

    Online periodical where page numbers are not given

    Persuasions, vol. 35, no. 1, 2014, www.jasna.org/persuasions/on-line/vol35no1/byrd.html.

    Simply omit page numbers and give the URL after the publication date.

    Citing a Source within a Source

    Scenario: You read an article by Robbins that cites, on page 270, another article by Wills. You want to cite Will’s article, but you have not read Wills’s article itself.

    Works Cited List

    In-Text Citation

    Robbins, Michael. "Paul Muldoon’s Covert Operations." Modern Philology, vol. 109, no. 2, 2011, pp. 266-99. JSTOR, doi:10.1086/663233.

    Your Works Cited list will contain the article you read, by Robbins. Your Works Cited list will NOT contain a citation for Wills’s article.

    Wills (cited in Robbins 270) notes that…

    Your in-text citation gives credit to Wills and shows the source in which you found Wills’s idea.

    If Robbins directly quotes another author and you want to use that direct quotation, include the abbreviation "qtd. in." For example:

    As Freud wrote, "He himself, however, had not noticed this glaringly obvious connection" (qtd. in Robbins 272).

    DOIs and URLs

    Use a DOI number if one is available. Otherwise use a URL (particularly a  permalink or stable URL , if one is available), and remove the beginning "http://" or "https://" from the link in your citation.

    Source

    Example

    DOI

    Robbins, Michael. "Paul Muldoon’s Covert Operations." Modern Philology, vol. 109, no. 2, 2011, pp. 266-99. JSTOR, doi:10.1086/663233.

    URL

    Cohen, Lara Langer. "Emily Dickinson’s Teenage Fanclub." The Emily Dickinson Journal, vol. 23, no. 1, 2014, muse.jhu.edu/article/543643.

    Top


    Articles

    Academic Journals:

    Source

    Works Cited List

    Library database

    Robbins, Michael. "Paul Muldoon’s Covert Operations." Modern Philology, vol. 109, no. 2, 2011, pp. 266-99. JSTOR, doi:10.1086/663233.

    Free Web

    Cohen, Lara Langer. "Emily Dickinson’s Teenage Fanclub." The Emily Dickinson Journal, vol. 23, no. 1, 2014, muse.jhu.edu/article/543643.

    In print

    Jordan, Stephanie. "Mark Morris Marks Purcell: ‘Dido and Aeneas’ as Danced Opera." Dance Research, vol. 29, no. 2, 2011, pp. 167-213.

    More info

    • In-text citation examples
    • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

    Tip:

    • Include volume and issue number (example: vol. 23, no. 1) when both are available.

    Magazines:

    -Daily or Weekly Magazines

    Source

    Works Cited List

    Library database

    Updike, John. "Dreamy Wilderness." The New Yorker, vol. 84, no. 35, 3 Nov. 2008, p. 112. Academic OneFile, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsgao&AN=edsgcl.188512674&site=eds-live&scope=site.

    Free Web

    Grossman, Lev. "Jhumpa Lahiri: The Quiet Laureate." Time, 8 May 2008, content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1738511,00.html.

    In print

    Aviv, Rachel. "Captain of Her Soul: The Philosopher Martha Nussbaum’s Emotions." The New Yorker, vol. 92, no. 22, 25 July 2016, pp. 34-43.

    More info

    • In-text citation examples
    • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

    -Monthly Magazines

    Source

    Works Cited List

    Library database

    Newman, Judith. "Funny Girl." Ladies Home Journal, vol. 31, no. 5, June 2014, pp. 42-47. MasterFILE Premier, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=96041993&login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site.

    Free Web

    Brady, Heather. "The Well-hidden World of Whiskey Aging." National Geographic, 29 July 2016, www.nationalgeographic.com/people-and-culture/food/the-plate/2016/07/whiskey-distilling-production-entrepreneurs-market-science.

    In print

    Beard, Alison. "Life’s Work." Harvard Business Review, vol. 93, no. 4, Apr. 2015, p. 116.

    More info

    • In-text citation examples
    • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

    Tip:

    • When an issue of a magazine covers several months, the name of the first and last month in the range should be given in the citation, separated by a dash, for example: Apr.-May 2003.

    Newspapers

    Source

    Works Cited List

    Library database

    Mewshaw, Michael. "David Foster Wallace, a Fan and Elegant Analyst of Tennis." Washington Post, 19 June 2016, p. B6. ProQuest News & Newspapers, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/1797768833?accountid=14580.

    Free Web

    Michaels, Andrew. "Howard Police Teach Life Lessons to Youth Through Chess." Baltimore Sun, 23 Feb. 2016, www.baltimoresun.com/news/maryland/howard/columbia/ph-ho-cf-chess-club-hcpd-0225-20160222-story.html.

    In print

    Brown, Patricia Leigh. "Tiffany Glass and Other Tales from the Crypt." New York Times, 5 Sept. 1999, pp. A1+.

    More info

    • In-text citation examples
    • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

    Tip:

    • When an article appears on nonconsecutive pages (for example A1 and A6) give only the first page number followed by a "+" as shown above. Give the page number on which the material you’ve used appears in your in-text citation, for example: (Brown A6).

    Encyclopedia Articles

    Source

    Works Cited List

    Library database

    Myers, Kathleen Ann. "Juana Inés de la Cruz, Sor." The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History, edited by Bonnie G. Smith, Oxford UP, 2008. Oxford Reference, www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780195148909.001.0001/acref-9780195148909-e-541.

    More info

    • In-text citation examples
    • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

    Book, Film and Product Reviews

    Source

    Works Cited List

    Library database

    Grimes, William. "Beyond Mandalay, the Road to Isolation and Xenophobia." Review of The River of Lost Footsteps: Histories of Burma, by Thant Myint-U. New York Times, 13 Dec. 2006, pp. E8+. ProQuest, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/433471566?accountid=14580.

    An untitled book, film, or product review (for example, a review covering multiple works):

    Guha, Martin. Review of Fleeting Pleasures: A History of Intoxicants, by Mervyn London, and Substance Use among Young People in Urban Environments, by Isidore S. Obot and Shekhar Saxena. Journal of Mental Health, vol. 15, no. 2, 2006, pp. 713-16. PsycARTICLES, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2006-22219-010&site=eds-live&scope=site.

    In print

    Grimes, William. "Beyond Mandalay, the Road to Isolation and Xenophobia." Review of The River of Lost Footsteps: Histories of Burma, by Thant Myint-U. New York Times, 13 Dec. 2006, pp. E8+.

    An untitled book, film, or product review (for example, a review covering multiple works):

    Guha, Martin. Review of Fleeting Pleasures: A History of Intoxicants, by Mervyn London, and Substance Use among Young People in Urban Environments, by Isidore S. Obot and Shekhar Saxena. Journal of Mental Health, vol. 15, no. 2, 2006, pp. 713-16.

    More info

    • In-text citation examples
    • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

    Tip:

    • The name of the work being reviewed should be preceded by "Rev.", and italics or other formatting done as appropriate for items reviewed and the source of the review itself.

    Top


    Books

    Source

    Works Cited List

    Basic book

    Jans, Nick. The Last Light Breaking: Life among Alaska’s Inupiat Eskimos. Alaska Northwest Books, 1993.

    Edited book

    Miller, John, and Tim Smith, editors. Cape Cod Stories: Tales from Cape Cod, Nantucket, and Martha’s Vineyard. Chronicle Books, 1996.

    Please see the sample citation for a chapter or article in an anthology below for information on citing a component of an edited collection.

    Numbered edition other than the first

    Wardle, Elizabeth, and Doug Downs, editors. Writing About Writing: A College Reader. 2nd ed., Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2014.

    Revised edition

    Culliney, John L. Islands in a Far Sea: The Fate of Nature in Hawai’i. Rev. ed., U of Hawai’i P, 2006.

    Multi-volume set

    Green, Constance McLaughlin. Washington. Princeton UP, 1962-63. 2 vols.

    In-text citation: (Green 1: 112-14)
    "1" is the volume number.

    Chapter or article in an anthology

    Toibin, Colm. "Send My Roots Rain: Gerard Manley Hopkins." Not Less Than Everything, edited by Catherine Wolff, HarperOne, 2013, 284-99.

    If the piece being cited was previously published, give the original date of publication after its title. The page numbers of the chapter or article should follow publication information for the book in your citation.

    More info

    • In-text citation examples
    • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

    Note on publisher element:

    • MLA citation style no longer includes the publisher’s city, only the publisher’s name.
    • If the publisher’s name includes "University" or "Press," abbreviate those, without periods, for example:
      • Princeton UP, 2014.
      • U of Pittsburgh P, 1994.

    Top


    E-Books

    Source

    Works Cited List

    Library database

    Barkan, Leonard. Mute Poetry, Speaking Pictures. Princeton UP, 2013. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost), ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=503029&site=eds-live&scope=site&profile=edsebook.

    Free Web

    Seton, Ernest Thompson. The Arctic Prairies: A Canoe-Journey of 2,000 Miles in Search of the Caribou. C. Scribner’s Sons, 1911. Project Gutenberg,www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/6818.

    Book chapter from a library database (suggested format)

    Thompson, Kate. "Journal Writing as a Therapeutic Tool." Writing Cures: An Introductory Handbook of Writing in Counselling and Psychotherapy, edited by Gillie Bolton, Routledge, 2004, pp. 72-84. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost), ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=116959&site=eds-live&scope=site&profile=edsebook.

    Library databases may include chapters from books. Information about the publisher of a book can often be found in the description of the chapter in the database. Author and publisher information may be omitted from your citation if it is not available.

    More info

    • In-text citation examples
    • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

    Top


    Web Sites

    Source

    Works Cited List

    Author is an individual

    Inskeep, Steve. "In Iran, A Poet’s 700-Year-Old Verses Still Set Hearts Aflame." NPR, 12 Feb. 2016, www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2016/02/12/466408554/in-iran-a-poets-700-year-old-verses-still-set-hearts-aflame.

    The publisher of the Web site, NPR, goes after the title of the Web page.

    Author is an organization

    Poetry Foundation. "Paul Laurence Dunbar." 2016, www.poetryfoundation.org/poems-and-poets/poets/detail/paul-laurence-dunbar.

    The publisher of the Web site, the Poetry Foundation, is used as the author because no individual author of the Web page content is named on the page.

    More info

    • In-text citation examples
    • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

    Top


    Online Classroom Materials

    Source

    Works Cited List

    Course module in UMUC online classroom

    UMUC. "What Is Research?" Course module in UMUC LIBS 150 online classroom, Summer 2016, learn.umuc.edu/d2l/le/content/147066/viewContent/6332908/View.

    No official MLA format for citing online classroom materials exists. This is merely a recommended format to use in citing such documents.

    More info

    • In-text citation examples
    • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

    Top


    Conference Papers

    Source

    Works Cited List

    Library database or free Web

    Levine, Sergey, and Vladlen Koltun. "Continuous Inverse Optimal Control with Locally Optimal Examples." Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Machine Learning, June 22-July 3, 2012, edited by John Langford and Joelle Pineau,  http://arxiv.org/pdf/1206.4617v1.pdf.

    MLA offers no guidance on citing electronic conference papers of any kind.  We have created this suggested proposed following guidance for print and other types of online sources.  For papers found in library databases, we suggest that you use the URL of either the conference itself or the sponsoring organization, located via Google. 

    More info

    • In-text citation examples
    • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

    Top


    Technical and Research Reports

    Source

    Works Cited List

    Free Web

    United States. Government Accountability Office. Information Security: Concerted Effort Needed to Consolidate and Secure Internet Connections at Federal Agencies. Mar. 2010, www.gao.gov/assets/310/301876.pdf.

    In print

    Information Security: Concerted Effort Needed to Consolidate and Secure Internet Connections at Federal Agencies. United States Government Accountability Office, Mar. 2010.

    More info

    • In-text citation examples
    • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

    Top


    Dissertations and Theses

    MLA does not provide official citation formats for dissertations and theses retrieved from online sources, but we recommend the use of the following:

    Dissertations

    Source

    Works Cited List

    Dissertations and Theses database

    Pecore, Joanna Theresa. "Sounding the Spirit of Cambodia: The Living Tradition of Khmer Music and Dance-Drama in a Washington, D.C. Community." Dissertation, U of Maryland, College Park, 2004. Dissertations and Theses, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/305175282?accountid=14580.

    Free Web

    Caprette, Christopher L. "Conquering the Cold Shudder: The Origin and Evolution of Snake Eyes." Dissertation, Ohio State U, 2005, rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1111184984.

    In print

    Caprette, Christopher L. "Conquering the Cold Shudder: The Origin and Evolution of Snake Eyes." Dissertation, Ohio State U, 2005.

    More info

    • In-text citation examples
    • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

    Master’s Theses

    Source

    Works Cited List

    Dissertations and Theses database

    Harzbecker, Joseph John. "Life and Death in Washington, D.C.: An Analysis of the Mortality Census of 1850." Master’s thesis, U of Massachusetts, Boston, 1999. Dissertations and Theses, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/304573667?accountid=14580.

    Free Web

    Angelova, Anelia Nedelcheva. "Data Pruning." Master’s thesis, California Institute of Technology, 2004, resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechETD:etd-05282004-000943.

    In print

    Angelova, Anelia Nedelcheva. "Data Pruning." Master’s thesis, California Institute of Technology, 2004.

    More info

    • In-text citation examples
    • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

    Tip:

    • For Masters of Science theses, replace "MA" with "MS".

    Top


    Images

    MLA provides limited guidance on citing images: if you are unable to cite the image that you need to using the formats below, please contact us for assistance.

    Titled Image

    Source

    Works Cited List

    Library database

    Martin, Agnes. Morning. 1965. Painting. Tate Gallery, London. Oxford Reference, www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780195335798.001.0001/acref-9780195335798-e-1302.

    Free Web

    Rousseau, Henri. The Ship in the Storm. 1896. Painting. Musee de l’Orangerie, Paris, www.musee-orangerie.fr/en/artwork/ship-storm.

    The collection which owns the image should be included in your citation along with its location as shown above.

    Image reproduced in a printed source

    Rousseau, Henri. The Ship in the Storm. 1896. Painting. Musee de l’Orangerie, Paris. Henri Rousseau: Jungles in Paris. By Claire Fresches, et al. National Gallery of Art, 2006. p. 232.

    More info

    • In-text citation examples
    • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

    Untitled Image

    If an image is untitled, create a brief, descriptive title for it. Do not italicize this title or place it in quotes, and capitalize only the first word and any proper nouns.

    Source

    Works Cited List

    Library database

    Massachusetts Historical Society. Seal of the society set in a landscape with ornaments. Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, vol. 17, 1879-1880, p. iii. JSTOR, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://www.jstor.org/stable/25079540.

    Image reproduced in a printed source

    Muybridge, Eadweard. Photograph of a horse running. 1887. National Gallery, London. Eadweard Muybridge: The Father of the Motion Picture. By Gordon Hendricks. Grossman, 1975. p. 202.

    Give the number of the page that the image appears on after the book’s publication information.

    More info

    • In-text citation examples
    • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

    Tip:

    • If known, the collection which owns the image should be included in your citation along with its location as shown above.

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    Streaming Videos

    Source

    Works Cited List

    Free Web

    McGregor, Wayne. "A Choreographer’s Creative Process in Real Time." TED, June 2012. www.ted.com/talks/wayne_mcgregor_a_choreographer_s_creative_process_in_real_time.

    More info

    • In-text citation examples
    • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

    Top


    Interviews and E-mail Messages

    Source

    Works Cited List

    Interviews

    Brown, Jane. Personal interview. 18 Nov. 2006.

    Smith, John. Telephone interview. 12 Aug. 2006.

    Whiting, Jennifer. E-mail interview. 2-10 Dec. 2005.

    To cite an interview you have conducted as part of your research, give the name of the person you interviewed, the type of interview, and the date or range of dates.

    E-mail message

    Doe, Jane. "Re: Why Poetry Matters." Received by John Smith, 1 Aug. 2016.

    Give the name of the person who wrote the email. The title is the subject line of the email. For "Received by," the name will usually be your own. Finish with the date of the email.

    More info

    • In-text citation examples
    • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

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    • MLA Citation Examples

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    MLA Citation Examples

    Based on the MLA Handbook, 8th Edition, 2016

    Some General Rules

    • In-Text Citations
    • Authors
    • Titles
    • Dates
    • Volume and Issue Numbers
    • Page Numbers
    • Citing a Source within a Source
    • DOIs and URLs

    Works Cited List Examples

    • Articles
      • Academic Journals
      • Magazines
      • Newspapers
      • Encyclopedia Articles
      • Book, Film, and Product Reviews
    • Books
    • E-books
    • Web Sites
    • Online Classroom Materials
    • Conference Papers
    • Technical and Research Reports
    • Dissertations and Theses
    • Images
    • Streaming Videos
    • Interviews and E-mail Messages

    Need More Help?

    For further guidance on MLA citations, please visit The MLA Style Center . You can also ask a librarian for help with citation-related questions. 

    Need the 7th Edition?

    See MLA Citation Examples: 7th Edition .


    Some General Rules

    In-Text Citations

    What You Are Citing

    In-Text Citation

    The entire work
    (or a work that has no page numbers)

    Include information in the text of your paper that will allow the reader to locate the source in your works cited list.

    If it is not possible to include this information in the text, follow the sentence where the citation needs to be made with an in-text citation containing only the name of the author.

    In his article "Allston Gothic," local historian Forman Jackson demonstrates how completely the neighborhood’s gruesome past has been forgotten by its residents.

    OR

    A recent newspaper article demonstrated just how thoroughly the neighborhood’s gruesome past has been forgotten by its residents (Jackson).

    A specific page

    (Cortois 70)

    If the author’s name is included in the text of the sentence where the citation takes place

    Jacobs has argued this point (190-210).

    Multi-volume set

    (Green 1: 112-14)
    "1" is the volume number.

    Citing multiple authors

    See Authors , below.

    Authors

    One author

    Example:
    Works Cited List

    Example:
    In-Text Citation

    Courtois, Charles A.

    (Cortois 70)

     

    Two authors

    Example:
    Works Cited List

    Example:
    In-Text Citation

    Martin, Jonathan A., and Christopher Jackson.

    (Martin and Jackson 127-28)

     

    Three or more authors

    Example:
    Works Cited List

    Example:
    In-Text Citation

    Fontela, Pablo, et al.

    If a work has more than 2 authors, MLA gives you the option of listing only the first author followed by "et al." (Latin for "and others").

    (Fontela et al. 153-54)

     

    Group author

    Example:
    Works Cited List

    Example:
    In-Text Citation

    Modern Language Association.

    (Modern Language Association 111)

     

    No authors listed

    Example:
    Works Cited List

    Example:
    In-Text Citation

    "Hints and Notions." The Decorator and Furnisher, vol. 6, no. 2, May 1885, pp. 61-68. JSTOR, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=www.jstor.org/stable/25584271.

    List that source by title in your works cited list. The title should be followed by the name of the source in the citation, and the remainder of the citation composed as appropriate for the source type. Alphabetize reference list entries beginning with a title using the primary word of the title (excluding a, an, or the).

    ("Hints and Notions" 61)

    In-text citations should include the title and the page number(s) of the text you are quoting or referring to, with the titles of articles in quotations, and the titles of books or Web sites italicized. In cases where the title contains a colon, use only the text before the colon in the in-text citation.

     

    Titles

    Titles of books, periodicals, art works, reports and Web sites are italicized. Please check the appropriate sample citation on this page to make sure you are using italics correctly.

    Dates

    With the exception of May, June and July, the names of the months must be abbreviated in MLA works cited lists as follows:

    • January = Jan.
    • February = Feb.
    • March = Mar.
    • April = Apr.
    • August = Aug.
    • September = Sept.
    • October= Oct.
    • November = Nov.
    • December = Dec.

    Undated Sources: When the source you are citing has no publication date, simply omit that part of the citation. Do not write "No date" or "N.d.".

    Source

    Example

    No date given

    Jane Austen Society of Australia. "Sense & Sensibility." Jane Austen Society of North America. Map. www.jasna.org/info/images/map-ss-1200.jpg.

    Volume and Issue Numbers

    Volume and issue numbers are often not available for articles in online periodicals. In these cases simply follow the date of the magazine or journal with a period in your works cited list citation, omitting the volume number where necessary.

    Source

    Example

    Journal volume and issue number available

    Child and Family Behavior Therapy, vol. 26, no.1, 2004, pp. 88-96.

    Online periodical where volume and issue numbers are not given

    Journal of Family Counseling, 2004.

    Page Numbers

    Source

    Example

    Page range whose first number is over 100

    125-35 (not 125-135)

    3200-22 (not 3200-3222)

    Do not repeat any numbers that can be easily inferred by the reader. This is done to minimize the length of works cited lists.

    Online periodical where page numbers are not given

    Persuasions, vol. 35, no. 1, 2014, www.jasna.org/persuasions/on-line/vol35no1/byrd.html.

    Simply omit page numbers and give the URL after the publication date.

    Citing a Source within a Source

    Scenario: You read an article by Robbins that cites, on page 270, another article by Wills. You want to cite Will’s article, but you have not read Wills’s article itself.

    Works Cited List

    In-Text Citation

    Robbins, Michael. "Paul Muldoon’s Covert Operations." Modern Philology, vol. 109, no. 2, 2011, pp. 266-99. JSTOR, doi:10.1086/663233.

    Your Works Cited list will contain the article you read, by Robbins. Your Works Cited list will NOT contain a citation for Wills’s article.

    Wills (cited in Robbins 270) notes that…

    Your in-text citation gives credit to Wills and shows the source in which you found Wills’s idea.

    If Robbins directly quotes another author and you want to use that direct quotation, include the abbreviation "qtd. in." For example:

    As Freud wrote, "He himself, however, had not noticed this glaringly obvious connection" (qtd. in Robbins 272).

    DOIs and URLs

    Use a DOI number if one is available. Otherwise use a URL (particularly a  permalink or stable URL , if one is available), and remove the beginning "http://" or "https://" from the link in your citation.

    Source

    Example

    DOI

    Robbins, Michael. "Paul Muldoon’s Covert Operations." Modern Philology, vol. 109, no. 2, 2011, pp. 266-99. JSTOR, doi:10.1086/663233.

    URL

    Cohen, Lara Langer. "Emily Dickinson’s Teenage Fanclub." The Emily Dickinson Journal, vol. 23, no. 1, 2014, muse.jhu.edu/article/543643.

    Top


    Articles

    Academic Journals:

    Source

    Works Cited List

    Library database

    Robbins, Michael. "Paul Muldoon’s Covert Operations." Modern Philology, vol. 109, no. 2, 2011, pp. 266-99. JSTOR, doi:10.1086/663233.

    Free Web

    Cohen, Lara Langer. "Emily Dickinson’s Teenage Fanclub." The Emily Dickinson Journal, vol. 23, no. 1, 2014, muse.jhu.edu/article/543643.

    In print

    Jordan, Stephanie. "Mark Morris Marks Purcell: ‘Dido and Aeneas’ as Danced Opera." Dance Research, vol. 29, no. 2, 2011, pp. 167-213.

    More info

    • In-text citation examples
    • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

    Tip:

    • Include volume and issue number (example: vol. 23, no. 1) when both are available.

    Magazines:

    -Daily or Weekly Magazines

    Source

    Works Cited List

    Library database

    Updike, John. "Dreamy Wilderness." The New Yorker, vol. 84, no. 35, 3 Nov. 2008, p. 112. Academic OneFile, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsgao&AN=edsgcl.188512674&site=eds-live&scope=site.

    Free Web

    Grossman, Lev. "Jhumpa Lahiri: The Quiet Laureate." Time, 8 May 2008, content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1738511,00.html.

    In print

    Aviv, Rachel. "Captain of Her Soul: The Philosopher Martha Nussbaum’s Emotions." The New Yorker, vol. 92, no. 22, 25 July 2016, pp. 34-43.

    More info

    • In-text citation examples
    • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

    -Monthly Magazines

    Source

    Works Cited List

    Library database

    Newman, Judith. "Funny Girl." Ladies Home Journal, vol. 31, no. 5, June 2014, pp. 42-47. MasterFILE Premier, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=96041993&login.asp&site=ehost-live&scope=site.

    Free Web

    Brady, Heather. "The Well-hidden World of Whiskey Aging." National Geographic, 29 July 2016, www.nationalgeographic.com/people-and-culture/food/the-plate/2016/07/whiskey-distilling-production-entrepreneurs-market-science.

    In print

    Beard, Alison. "Life’s Work." Harvard Business Review, vol. 93, no. 4, Apr. 2015, p. 116.

    More info

    • In-text citation examples
    • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

    Tip:

    • When an issue of a magazine covers several months, the name of the first and last month in the range should be given in the citation, separated by a dash, for example: Apr.-May 2003.

    Newspapers

    Source

    Works Cited List

    Library database

    Mewshaw, Michael. "David Foster Wallace, a Fan and Elegant Analyst of Tennis." Washington Post, 19 June 2016, p. B6. ProQuest News & Newspapers, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/1797768833?accountid=14580.

    Free Web

    Michaels, Andrew. "Howard Police Teach Life Lessons to Youth Through Chess." Baltimore Sun, 23 Feb. 2016, www.baltimoresun.com/news/maryland/howard/columbia/ph-ho-cf-chess-club-hcpd-0225-20160222-story.html.

    In print

    Brown, Patricia Leigh. "Tiffany Glass and Other Tales from the Crypt." New York Times, 5 Sept. 1999, pp. A1+.

    More info

    • In-text citation examples
    • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

    Tip:

    • When an article appears on nonconsecutive pages (for example A1 and A6) give only the first page number followed by a "+" as shown above. Give the page number on which the material you’ve used appears in your in-text citation, for example: (Brown A6).

    Encyclopedia Articles

    Source

    Works Cited List

    Library database

    Myers, Kathleen Ann. "Juana Inés de la Cruz, Sor." The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History, edited by Bonnie G. Smith, Oxford UP, 2008. Oxford Reference, www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780195148909.001.0001/acref-9780195148909-e-541.

    More info

    • In-text citation examples
    • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

    Book, Film and Product Reviews

    Source

    Works Cited List

    Library database

    Grimes, William. "Beyond Mandalay, the Road to Isolation and Xenophobia." Review of The River of Lost Footsteps: Histories of Burma, by Thant Myint-U. New York Times, 13 Dec. 2006, pp. E8+. ProQuest, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/433471566?accountid=14580.

    An untitled book, film, or product review (for example, a review covering multiple works):

    Guha, Martin. Review of Fleeting Pleasures: A History of Intoxicants, by Mervyn London, and Substance Use among Young People in Urban Environments, by Isidore S. Obot and Shekhar Saxena. Journal of Mental Health, vol. 15, no. 2, 2006, pp. 713-16. PsycARTICLES, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=psyh&AN=2006-22219-010&site=eds-live&scope=site.

    In print

    Grimes, William. "Beyond Mandalay, the Road to Isolation and Xenophobia." Review of The River of Lost Footsteps: Histories of Burma, by Thant Myint-U. New York Times, 13 Dec. 2006, pp. E8+.

    An untitled book, film, or product review (for example, a review covering multiple works):

    Guha, Martin. Review of Fleeting Pleasures: A History of Intoxicants, by Mervyn London, and Substance Use among Young People in Urban Environments, by Isidore S. Obot and Shekhar Saxena. Journal of Mental Health, vol. 15, no. 2, 2006, pp. 713-16.

    More info

    • In-text citation examples
    • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

    Tip:

    • The name of the work being reviewed should be preceded by "Rev.", and italics or other formatting done as appropriate for items reviewed and the source of the review itself.

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    Books

    Source

    Works Cited List

    Basic book

    Jans, Nick. The Last Light Breaking: Life among Alaska’s Inupiat Eskimos. Alaska Northwest Books, 1993.

    Edited book

    Miller, John, and Tim Smith, editors. Cape Cod Stories: Tales from Cape Cod, Nantucket, and Martha’s Vineyard. Chronicle Books, 1996.

    Please see the sample citation for a chapter or article in an anthology below for information on citing a component of an edited collection.

    Numbered edition other than the first

    Wardle, Elizabeth, and Doug Downs, editors. Writing About Writing: A College Reader. 2nd ed., Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2014.

    Revised edition

    Culliney, John L. Islands in a Far Sea: The Fate of Nature in Hawai’i. Rev. ed., U of Hawai’i P, 2006.

    Multi-volume set

    Green, Constance McLaughlin. Washington. Princeton UP, 1962-63. 2 vols.

    In-text citation: (Green 1: 112-14)
    "1" is the volume number.

    Chapter or article in an anthology

    Toibin, Colm. "Send My Roots Rain: Gerard Manley Hopkins." Not Less Than Everything, edited by Catherine Wolff, HarperOne, 2013, 284-99.

    If the piece being cited was previously published, give the original date of publication after its title. The page numbers of the chapter or article should follow publication information for the book in your citation.

    More info

    • In-text citation examples
    • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

    Note on publisher element:

    • MLA citation style no longer includes the publisher’s city, only the publisher’s name.
    • If the publisher’s name includes "University" or "Press," abbreviate those, without periods, for example:
      • Princeton UP, 2014.
      • U of Pittsburgh P, 1994.

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    E-Books

    Source

    Works Cited List

    Library database

    Barkan, Leonard. Mute Poetry, Speaking Pictures. Princeton UP, 2013. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost), ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=503029&site=eds-live&scope=site&profile=edsebook.

    Free Web

    Seton, Ernest Thompson. The Arctic Prairies: A Canoe-Journey of 2,000 Miles in Search of the Caribou. C. Scribner’s Sons, 1911. Project Gutenberg,www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/6818.

    Book chapter from a library database (suggested format)

    Thompson, Kate. "Journal Writing as a Therapeutic Tool." Writing Cures: An Introductory Handbook of Writing in Counselling and Psychotherapy, edited by Gillie Bolton, Routledge, 2004, pp. 72-84. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost), ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=116959&site=eds-live&scope=site&profile=edsebook.

    Library databases may include chapters from books. Information about the publisher of a book can often be found in the description of the chapter in the database. Author and publisher information may be omitted from your citation if it is not available.

    More info

    • In-text citation examples
    • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

    Top


    Web Sites

    Source

    Works Cited List

    Author is an individual

    Inskeep, Steve. "In Iran, A Poet’s 700-Year-Old Verses Still Set Hearts Aflame." NPR, 12 Feb. 2016, www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2016/02/12/466408554/in-iran-a-poets-700-year-old-verses-still-set-hearts-aflame.

    The publisher of the Web site, NPR, goes after the title of the Web page.

    Author is an organization

    Poetry Foundation. "Paul Laurence Dunbar." 2016, www.poetryfoundation.org/poems-and-poets/poets/detail/paul-laurence-dunbar.

    The publisher of the Web site, the Poetry Foundation, is used as the author because no individual author of the Web page content is named on the page.

    More info

    • In-text citation examples
    • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

    Top


    Online Classroom Materials

    Source

    Works Cited List

    Course module in UMUC online classroom

    UMUC. "What Is Research?" Course module in UMUC LIBS 150 online classroom, Summer 2016, learn.umuc.edu/d2l/le/content/147066/viewContent/6332908/View.

    No official MLA format for citing online classroom materials exists. This is merely a recommended format to use in citing such documents.

    More info

    • In-text citation examples
    • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

    Top


    Conference Papers

    Source

    Works Cited List

    Library database or free Web

    Levine, Sergey, and Vladlen Koltun. "Continuous Inverse Optimal Control with Locally Optimal Examples." Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Machine Learning, June 22-July 3, 2012, edited by John Langford and Joelle Pineau,  http://arxiv.org/pdf/1206.4617v1.pdf.

    MLA offers no guidance on citing electronic conference papers of any kind.  We have created this suggested proposed following guidance for print and other types of online sources.  For papers found in library databases, we suggest that you use the URL of either the conference itself or the sponsoring organization, located via Google. 

    More info

    • In-text citation examples
    • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

    Top


    Technical and Research Reports

    Source

    Works Cited List

    Free Web

    United States. Government Accountability Office. Information Security: Concerted Effort Needed to Consolidate and Secure Internet Connections at Federal Agencies. Mar. 2010, www.gao.gov/assets/310/301876.pdf.

    In print

    Information Security: Concerted Effort Needed to Consolidate and Secure Internet Connections at Federal Agencies. United States Government Accountability Office, Mar. 2010.

    More info

    • In-text citation examples
    • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

    Top


    Dissertations and Theses

    MLA does not provide official citation formats for dissertations and theses retrieved from online sources, but we recommend the use of the following:

    Dissertations

    Source

    Works Cited List

    Dissertations and Theses database

    Pecore, Joanna Theresa. "Sounding the Spirit of Cambodia: The Living Tradition of Khmer Music and Dance-Drama in a Washington, D.C. Community." Dissertation, U of Maryland, College Park, 2004. Dissertations and Theses, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/305175282?accountid=14580.

    Free Web

    Caprette, Christopher L. "Conquering the Cold Shudder: The Origin and Evolution of Snake Eyes." Dissertation, Ohio State U, 2005, rave.ohiolink.edu/etdc/view?acc_num=osu1111184984.

    In print

    Caprette, Christopher L. "Conquering the Cold Shudder: The Origin and Evolution of Snake Eyes." Dissertation, Ohio State U, 2005.

    More info

    • In-text citation examples
    • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

    Master’s Theses

    Source

    Works Cited List

    Dissertations and Theses database

    Harzbecker, Joseph John. "Life and Death in Washington, D.C.: An Analysis of the Mortality Census of 1850." Master’s thesis, U of Massachusetts, Boston, 1999. Dissertations and Theses, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/304573667?accountid=14580.

    Free Web

    Angelova, Anelia Nedelcheva. "Data Pruning." Master’s thesis, California Institute of Technology, 2004, resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechETD:etd-05282004-000943.

    In print

    Angelova, Anelia Nedelcheva. "Data Pruning." Master’s thesis, California Institute of Technology, 2004.

    More info

    • In-text citation examples
    • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

    Tip:

    • For Masters of Science theses, replace "MA" with "MS".

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    Images

    MLA provides limited guidance on citing images: if you are unable to cite the image that you need to using the formats below, please contact us for assistance.

    Titled Image

    Source

    Works Cited List

    Library database

    Martin, Agnes. Morning. 1965. Painting. Tate Gallery, London. Oxford Reference, www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780195335798.001.0001/acref-9780195335798-e-1302.

    Free Web

    Rousseau, Henri. The Ship in the Storm. 1896. Painting. Musee de l’Orangerie, Paris, www.musee-orangerie.fr/en/artwork/ship-storm.

    The collection which owns the image should be included in your citation along with its location as shown above.

    Image reproduced in a printed source

    Rousseau, Henri. The Ship in the Storm. 1896. Painting. Musee de l’Orangerie, Paris. Henri Rousseau: Jungles in Paris. By Claire Fresches, et al. National Gallery of Art, 2006. p. 232.

    More info

    • In-text citation examples
    • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

    Untitled Image

    If an image is untitled, create a brief, descriptive title for it. Do not italicize this title or place it in quotes, and capitalize only the first word and any proper nouns.

    Source

    Works Cited List

    Library database

    Massachusetts Historical Society. Seal of the society set in a landscape with ornaments. Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, vol. 17, 1879-1880, p. iii. JSTOR, ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://www.jstor.org/stable/25079540.

    Image reproduced in a printed source

    Muybridge, Eadweard. Photograph of a horse running. 1887. National Gallery, London. Eadweard Muybridge: The Father of the Motion Picture. By Gordon Hendricks. Grossman, 1975. p. 202.

    Give the number of the page that the image appears on after the book’s publication information.

    More info

    • In-text citation examples
    • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

    Tip:

    • If known, the collection which owns the image should be included in your citation along with its location as shown above.

    Top


    Streaming Videos

    Source

    Works Cited List

    Free Web

    McGregor, Wayne. "A Choreographer’s Creative Process in Real Time." TED, June 2012. www.ted.com/talks/wayne_mcgregor_a_choreographer_s_creative_process_in_real_time.

    More info

    • In-text citation examples
    • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

    Top


    Interviews and E-mail Messages

    Source

    Works Cited List

    Interviews

    Brown, Jane. Personal interview. 18 Nov. 2006.

    Smith, John. Telephone interview. 12 Aug. 2006.

    Whiting, Jennifer. E-mail interview. 2-10 Dec. 2005.

    To cite an interview you have conducted as part of your research, give the name of the person you interviewed, the type of interview, and the date or range of dates.

    E-mail message

    Doe, Jane. "Re: Why Poetry Matters." Received by John Smith, 1 Aug. 2016.

    Give the name of the person who wrote the email. The title is the subject line of the email. For "Received by," the name will usually be your own. Finish with the date of the email.

    More info

    • In-text citation examples
    • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

    Top