Formatting an APA Paper 2017-2018

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APA Citation Examples

Based on APA Publication Manual, 6th Edition (2009) and APA Style Guide to Electronic References (2012)

Some General Rules

  • In-Text Citations
  • Authors
  • Titles
  • Volume and Issue Numbers
  • Page Numbers
  • Undated Sources
  • Citing a Source within a Source

Reference List Examples

  • Articles
    • Academic Journals
    • Magazines
    • Newspapers
    • Encyclopedia Articles
    • Book, Film, and Product Reviews
  • Books
  • E-books
  • Web Sites
  • Online Classroom Materials
  • Conference Papers
  • Technical and Research Reports
  • Legal Materials
  • Dissertations and Theses
  • Images
  • Streaming Videos
  • Interviews, E-mail Messages, and Other Personal Communications

Need More Help?

The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is the APA’s official citation guide and provides a more detailed explanation of how to use APA style. The manual is unfortunately not available online, but reference copies are available in all 16 University of Maryland libraries .

The APA Style Guide to Electronic References (2012) focuses solely on the citing of electronic resources and includes a wide variety of citation examples.

You can also ask a librarian for help with a citation-related question.


Some General Rules

In-Text Citations (Publication Manual, pp. 174-179)

What You Are Citing

In-Text Citation

The entire work

(Smith, 2004)

A specific page

(Smith, 2004, p. 39)

If the author’s name is included in the text of the sentence where the citation takes place

Smith (2004, p. 39) claims that…

Use only the date or date and page number.

An online article with no page numbers.

(Myers, 2000, para. 5)

(Beutler, 2000, Conclusion section, para. 1)

Use abbreviation "para." followed by the paragraph number you are citing. When possible, specify a section of the article.

Citing multiple authors

See Authors , below.

Authors (Publication Manual, pp. 181-183)

One author

Example:
Reference List Citation

Example:
In-Text Citation

Courtois, C. A. (2004).

(Courtois, 2004)

 

Two authors

Example:
Reference List Citation

Example:
In-Text Citation

Kelley, P. C., & Chang, P. L. (2007).

(Kelley & Chang, 2007)

 

Three to five authors

Example:
Reference List Citation

Example:
In-Text Citation

Hughes, J. C., Brestan, E. V., & Valle, L. A. (2004).

First citation:
(Hughes, Brestan, & Valle, 2004)

Subsequent citations:
(Hughes et al., 2004)

When a work has more than 2 authors, subsequent in-text citations consist of the first author’s name followed by "et al." (Latin for "and others") and the date.

 

Six or seven authors

Example:
Reference List Citation

Example:
In-Text Citation

Phelps, B. R., Lima, M., Gomez, J., MacArthur, R. T., Gansu, L., & Nehru, M. (2004).

First citation:
(Phelps et al., 2004)

Subsequent citations:
(Phelps et al., 2004)

When a work has 6-7 authors, in-text citations consist of the first author’s name followed by "et al." (Latin for "and others") and the date.

 

Eight or more authors

Example:
Reference List Citation

Example:
In-Text Citation

Carter, A., Dougherty, S., Addington, M., Stanley, R., Stanley, C., Schuffler, G., . . . Smyrna, B. F. (2004).

When there are eight or more authors, include the first 6 authors’ names followed by an ellipsis (. . .) and the final author’s name.

First citation:
(Carter et al., 2004)

Subsequent citations:
(Carter et al., 2004)

When a work has 8 or more authors, in-text citations consist of the first author’s name followed by "et al." (Latin for "and others") and the date.

 

Group author

Example:
Reference List Citation

Example:
In-Text Citation

American Dietetic Association. (1999).

First citation:
(American Dietetic Association [ADA], 1999)

Subsequent citations:
(ADA, 1999)

 

No authors listed

Example:
Reference List Citation

Example:
In-Text Citation

None to claim their bones: Relics of an old Brooklyn graveyard. (1888, April 12). New York Times, pp. 3-4. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/

List the source by title in your reference list. Alphabetize reference list entries beginning with a title using the primary word of the title (excluding a, an, and the).

("None to Claim Their Bones," 1888)

In cases where the title contains a colon, use only the text before the colon in your in-text citation.

 

Titles (Publication Manual, pp. 185-187)

Capitalization: For all sources other than periodicals (that is, newspapers, magazines, and scholarly journals), capitalize the first word of the title and subtitle and proper nouns only. Do not capitalize the rest (see example below).

All major words in periodical titles should be capitalized (for example, Psychology Today, Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved.)

Italics: Titles are italicized for the following items:

  • Books
  • E-Books
  • Periodicals
  • Dissertations/theses
  • Reports/technical papers
  • Works of art

Source

Example

Journal article title

Freud’s Vienna revisited.

Book title

Student cheating and plagiarism in the Internet era: A wake-up call.

Volume & Issue Numbers (Publication Manual, p. 186)

APA does not use "Volume", "Vol.", "v.", "Issue" or related terms. Use italics for the volume number.

Source

Example

Magazine and journal volume and issue number formatting

12(4)

12 is the volume number (in italics) and 4 is the issue number.

If each issue of a journal begins on page 1, give the issue number in parentheses immediately after the volume number, as above.

Page Numbers (Publication Manual, pp. 178, 200)

Issue

What To Do

When to use "p." and "pp."

Use "p." and "pp." to indicate page numbers when citing newspaper articles and book chapters. Omit them when citing journal and magazine articles. Follow the examples in this guide.

Online periodical where page numbers are not given

National Geographic, 300(2).

300 is the volume number. Follow the issue number of the magazine or journal with a period.

Undated Sources (Publication Manual, p. 185)

Use "(n.d.)" (for "no date") in your citation.

Reference List Citation

In-Text Citation

Knowles, A. (n.d.). House of dust [Collage]. Retrieved from Oxford Art Online database.

(Knowles, n.d.)

Citing a Source within a Source (Publication Manual, p. 178)

Scenario: You read a 2007 article by Linhares and Brum that cites an earlier article, by Frederick. You want to cite Frederick’s article, but you have not read Frederick’s article itself.

Reference List Citation

In-Text Citation

Linhares, A., & Brum, P. (2007). Understanding our understanding of strategic scenarios: What role do chunks play? Cognitive Science, 31(6), 989-1007. https://doi.org/doi:10.1080/03640210701703725

Your Reference list will contain the article you read, by Linhares and Brum. Your Reference list will NOT contain a citation for Frederick’s article.

Frederick’s study (as cited in Linhares & Brum, 2007) found that…

Your in-text citation gives credit to Frederick and shows the source in which you found Frederick’s ideas.

Top


Articles

Academic Journals (Publication Manual, pp. 198-199; Style Guide, p. 12)

Source

Reference List Citation

Library database with DOI

Dumais, S. A., Rizzuto, T. E., Cleary, J., & Dowden, L. (2013). Stressors and supports for adult online learners: Comparing first- and continuing-generation college students. American Journal of Distance Education, 27(2), 100-110. https://doi.org/10.1080/08923647.2013.783265

What is a DOI?
Some library databases, such as PsycARTICLES and PsycINFO, list a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) for individual articles. A DOI is a unique identifying number for an article. In the database record for an article, you will see an element that looks like this, which you should include at the end of your APA reference, preceded by "https://doi.org/":

Digital Object Identifier

This link will allow a reader to link to doi.org for more information about the article.

However, the APA Style Guide to Electronic References (2012, p. 5) notes that it is still acceptable to use the older style of DOI format in a citation, for example:

Amidzic, O., Riehle, H. J., & Elbert, T. (2006). Toward a psychophysiology of expertise: Focal magnetic gamma bursts as a signature of memory chunks and the aptitude of chess players. Journal of Psychophysiology, 20(4), 253-258. doi:10.1027/0269-8803.20.4.253

Library database without DOI

Reitzes, D. C., & Mutran, E. J. (2004). The transition to retirement: Stages and factors that influence retirement adjustment. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 59(1), 63-84. Retrieved from http://www.baywood.com/journals/PreviewJournals.asp?Id=0091-4150

No DOI? Find the journal’s homepage.
Do a Web search to find the address of the homepage of the journal that published the article and include it in your citation. Please be aware, however, that the full text of articles may not actually be available at the journal homepage.

Cannot find the journal’s homepage?
In this case, do a Web search for the name of the database you are using (for example, "JSTOR" or "Business Source Complete") and use the address of its homepage.

Free Web

Giancola, P. R. (2004). Executive functioning and alcohol-related aggression. American Psychologist, 59(2), 5-7. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/journals/amp/

In print

Hughes, J. C., Brestan, E. V., & Valle, L. A. (2004). Problem-solving interactions between mothers and children. Child and Family Behavior Therapy, 26(1), 1-16.

More info

  • In-text citation examples
  • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

Magazines:

-Daily or Weekly Magazines (Publication Manual, p. 200; Style Guide, pp. 13-14)

      

Source

Reference List Citation

Library database with DOI

Jackson, P. (2011, March 1). Navy Yard Hill and the founding of Washington City. Capitol Hill Historian, 2, 5-9. https://doi.org/10.1068/20113

What is a DOI?
Some library databases, such as Academic Search Ultimate and PsycINFO, list a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) for individual articles. A DOI is a unique identifying number for an article. In the database record for an article, you will see an element that looks like this, which you should include at the end of your APA reference, preceded by "https://doi.org/":

Digital Object Identifier

This link will allow a reader to link to doi.org for more information about the article.

However, the APA Style Guide to Electronic References (2012, p. 5) notes that it is still acceptable to use the older style of DOI format in a citation, for example:

Janney, K. (2006, May). Crow rookeries and urban toponyms in the United States. Corvid, 10(1), 2-6. doi:11.1111/0224-8900.21.4.260

Library database without DOI

Borowitz, A. (2004, November 15). Pavlov’s brother. New Yorker, 80(35), 63-66. Retrieved from http://www.newyorker.com/

No DOI? Find the magazine’s homepage.
Do a Web search (using a search engine such as Google or Yahoo!) to find the address of the homepage of the journal that published the article and include it in your citation ( example ). Please be aware, however, that the full text of articles may not actually be available at the journal homepage.

Cannot find the magazine’s homepage?
In this case, do a Web search (using a search engine such as Google or Yahoo!) for the name of the database you are using (for example, "JSTOR" or "Business Source Complete") and use the address of its homepage.

Free Web

Springen, K. (2005, January 17). Artful aging. Newsweek, 145(3), 25-27. Retrieved from http://www.newsweek.com/

In print

Borowitz, A. (2004, November 15). Pavlov’s brother. New Yorker, 80(35), 63-66.

More info

  • In-text citation examples
  • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.  

 
 

-Monthly Magazines (Publication Manual, p. 200; Style Guide, pp. 13-14)

Source

Reference List Citation

Library database with DOI

Niu, J. (2012, March-April). An overview of web archiving. D-Lib, 18(3-4). https://doi.org/10.1045/march2012-niu1

What is a DOI?
Some library databases, such as Academic Search Ultimate and PsycINFO, list a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) for individual articles. A DOI is a unique identifying number for an article. In the database record for an article, you will see an element that looks like this, which you should include at the end of your APA reference, preceded by "https://doi.org/":

Digital Object Identifier

This link will allow a reader to link to doi.org for more information about the article.

However, the APA Style Guide to Electronic References (2012, p. 5) notes that it is still acceptable to use the older style of DOI format in a citation, for example:

Rostok, M. (2011, August 1). Android malware on the rise. eWeek, 2(6), 11. doi:11.3267/2553/8911.324.260

Library database without DOI

Norman, A. D. (1988, March). Infuriating by design. Psychology Today, 22(3), 52-56. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/

No DOI? Find the magazine’s homepage.
Do a Web search (using a search engine such as Google or Yahoo!) to find the address of the homepage of the journal that published the article and include it in your citation ( example ). Please be aware, however, that the full text of articles may not actually be available at the journal homepage.

Cannot find the magazine’s homepage?
In this case, do a Web search (using a search engine such as Google or Yahoo!) for the name of the database you are using (for example, "JSTOR" or "Business Source Complete") and use the address of its homepage.

Free Web

Gelb, N. (2003, May). Winter of discontent. Smithsonian, 34(2), 50-55. Retrieved from http://www.smithsonianmagazine.com/

In print

Ives, F., & Lydon, J. (2005, January). Freud’s Vienna revisited. Discover, 26(2), 16-17.

More info

  • In-text citation examples
  • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

Tip:

  • When an issue of a magazine covers several months, the name of the first and last month in the range should be given in the citation, separated by a dash, for example: "(1993, June-July)".

Newspapers (Publication Manual, pp. 200-201; Style Guide, p. 14)

Source

Reference List Citation

Library database

Brown, P. L. (1999, September 5). Tiffany glass and other tales from the crypt. The New York Times, pp. 1, 5. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/

Do a Web search (using a search engine such as Google or Yahoo!) for the newspaper homepage and use the homepage URL after the words "Retrieved from".

Free Web

Foreman, J. (2003, August 12). Allston gothic. The Boston Globe. Retrieved from http://www.boston.com/

In print

Brown, P. L. (1999, September 5). Tiffany glass and other tales from the crypt. The New York Times, pp. 1, 5.

The page number of a newspaper article is preceded by "p." in a reference list citation. When an article appears on multiple pages, the page range is preceded by "pp." (for example, "pp. 4-6"). When an article appears on discontinuous pages, separate the page numbers with a comma (ex. "pp. 4, 8"). When a newspaper uses section letters in its page numbers, these should be included in your citation (ex. "p. A1", "pp. B1, B6").

More info

  • In-text citation examples
  • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

Encyclopedia Articles (Publication Manual, p. 205; Style Guide, p. 18)

Source

Reference List Citation

Library database with DOI

Miura, A. (2012). Human behavior with blogs. In Y Zheng (Ed.), Encyclopedia of cyber behavior. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-4666-0315-8

What is a DOI?
Some library databases, such as Academic Search Ultimate and PsycINFO, list a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) for individual e-books. A DOI is a unique identifying number for an e-book. In the database record for an e-book, you will see an element that looks like this, which you should include at the end of your APA reference, preceded by "https://doi.org/":

Digital Object Identifier

This link will allow a reader to link to doi.org for more information about the e-book.

However, the APA Style Guide to Electronic References (2012, p. 5) notes that it is still acceptable to use the older style of DOI format in a citation, for example:

Rostok, M. (2011). Android malware. In K. K. Frank (Ed.), Encyclopedia of mobile security. doi:10.3218/7853/8922.666.261

Library database without DOI

Smith, A. J. (2001). Child development. In B. Strickland (Ed.), The Gale encyclopedia of psychology. Retrieved from http://www.gale.cengage.com/

No DOI? Find the publisher’s homepage.
Do a Web search (using a search engine such as Google or Yahoo!) to find the address of the homepage of the journal that published the article and include it in your citation. Please be aware, however, that the full text of encyclopedia may not actually be available at the publisher’s homepage.

Cannot find the publisher’s homepage?
In this case, do a Web search (using a search engine such as Google or Yahoo!) for the name of the database you are using (for example, "JSTOR" or "Business Source Complete") and use the address of its homepage.

More info

  • In-text citation examples
  • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

Book, Film and Product Reviews (Publication Manual, pp. 208-209)

Source

Reference List Citation

Library database

Grimes, W. (2006, December 13). Beyond Mandalay, the road to isolation and xenophobia [Review of the book The river of lost footsteps: Histories of Burma, by T. Myint-U]. New York Times, pp. E8, E10. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/

An untitled book, film, or product review (for example, a review covering multiple works):

Guha, M. (2006). [Review of the books Fleeting pleasures: A history of intoxicants, by M. London and Dirty: A search for answers inside America’s teenage drug epidemic, by M. Maran]. Journal of Mental Health, 15, 713-716. Retrieved from http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~content=t713432595

Follow the correct formatting for the type of publication (e.g. a newspaper, a scholarly journal) the review is taken from, including the DOI if one is available.

Free Web

Cohen, P. (2007, May 9). Love, honor, cherish, and buy [Review of the book One perfect day: The selling of the American wedding, by R. Mead]. New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/09/books/09bride.html

More info

  • In-text citation examples
  • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

Top


Books (Publication Manual, pp. 202-204)

Source

Reference List Citation

Basic book

Jans, N. (1993). The last light breaking: Life among Alaska’s Inupiat Eskimos. Anchorage, AK: Alaska Northwest Books.

Edited book

Miller, J., & Smith, T. (Eds.). (1996). Cape Cod stories: Tales from Cape Cod, Nantucket, and Martha’s Vineyard. San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books.

For a single editor, use "(Ed.)".

Books where the author and publisher are the same

American Psychological Association. (2009). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Numbered edition other than the first

Arking, R. (2006). The biology of aging: Observations and principles (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Revised edition

Culliney, J. L. (2006). Islands in a far sea: The fate of nature in Hawai’i (Rev. ed.). Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai’i Press.

Multi-volume set

Green, C. M. (1962-1963). Washington (Vols. 1-2). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

If volumes in a work or set are published in different years, give the range of years separated by a dash as above.

Chapter or article in an anthology

Eliot, T. S. (2001). Tradition and the individual talent. In V. B. Leitch (Ed.), The Norton anthology of theory and criticism (pp. 1092-1097). New York, NY: W. W. Norton. (Original work published 1920)

Note that the page numbers of an article or chapter are preceded by "pp." when citing it (for example, "pp. 25-50"). In cases where an article/chapter occupies a single page, the page is preceded by "p." (ex. "p. 4").

If an article has been reprinted from a source published earlier, give the original date of publication in the "original work" element of the citation as shown above (when using this element, the final period in a citation is omitted).

More info

  • In-text citation examples
  • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

Tips:

  • Cities, States and Countries: For U.S. cities, add the standard postal abbreviations for state (for example, "Chatham, MA"). Foreign cities should be followed by the name of their country (ex. "Brisbane, Australia").
  • Place of publication: Separate place of publication from publisher with a colon (for example "New York, NY: Zone Books"). If more than one city is given, list only the first.
  • Publisher names: "Co.", "Inc." and related abbreviations should not be included in citations (for example, "Ivan R. Dee, Inc." should be given as "Ivan R. Dee".)

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E-Books (Style Guide, pp. 15-18)

   

Source

Reference List Citation

Library database with DOI

Chaffe-Stengel, P., & Stengel, D. (2012). Working with sample data: Exploration and inference. https://doi.org/10.4128/9781606492147

What is a DOI?
Some library databases, such as Academic Search Ultimate and PsycINFO, list a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) for individual e-books. A DOI is a unique identifying number for an e-book. In the database record for an e-book, you will see an element that looks like this, which you should include at the end of your APA reference, preceded by "https://doi.org/":

Digital Object Identifier

This link will allow a reader to link to doi.org for more information about the e-book. However, the APA Style Guide to Electronic References notes that it is still acceptable to use the older style of DOI format in a citation (see page 5), for example:

Conoloff, A. (2012). Salvaging the suburbs. doi:11.8870/6001/2122.442.261

Library e-book database without DOI

Miller, L. (2008). Careers for nature lovers & other outdoor types. Retrieved from http://www.ebscohost.com

No DOI? Use the URL for the database.
When a book has no DOI, write “Retrieved from” followed by the URL of the database. Use these URLs for library e-book databases:

  • EBSCO eBooks Collection:
    Retrieved from http://www.ebscohost.com
  • Safari Books Online:
    Retrieved from http://www.safaribooksonline.com
  • Books 24×7:
    Retrieved from http://library.books24x7.com

Book read on an e-book reader

Gladwell, M. (2008). Outliers: The story of success [Kindle DX version].  Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com

After the book title, put in brackets the name of the e-book reader, with the word “version.” Follow that with the DOI. If the book has no DOI, write “Retrieved from” followed by the URL of the site from which you downloaded the e-book.

Free Web

Seton, E. T. (1911). The Arctic prairies: A canoe-journey of 2,000 miles in search of the caribou. Retrieved from http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/6818

Book chapter from a library database (suggested format)

Quina, K., & Kanarian, M. A. (1988). Continuing education. In P. Bronstein & K. Quina (Eds.), Teaching a psychology of people: Resources for gender and sociocultural awareness (pp. 200-208). Retrieved from http://www.ebscohost.com/academic/psycinfo

When using just a chapter from a book the same rules apply regarding DOI or no DOI as listed above, depending on where the book was retrieved.

More info

  • In-text citation examples
  • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

Top


Web Sites (Style Guide, pp. 31-34)

Source

Reference List Citation

A specific page within a Web site

Single author:

Freitas, N. (2015, January 6). People around the world are voluntarily submitting to China’s Great Firewall. Why? Retrieved from http://www.slate.com/blogs/future_tense/2015/01/06/
tencent_s_wechat_worldwide_internet_users_
are_voluntarily_submitting_to.html

Multiple authors:

Nafees, Q., Yilong, Y., Andras, N., Zhiming, L., & Janos, S. (2014, November 19). Anonymously analyzing clinical data sets. Retrieved from http://arxiv.org/abs/1501.05916

Corporate author:

Sea Turtle Restoration Project. (2006). Threats to sea turtles. Retrieved from http://www.seaturtleinc.org/rehabilitation/threats-to-sea-turtles/

In-text citations:

(Freitas, 2015)

(Nafees, Yilong, Andras, Zhiming, & Janos, 2014)

(Sea Turtle Restoration Project, 2006)

Entire Web site

If you refer to an entire Web site, you do not need to include an entry for it in your reference list, but must identify the source clearly in the text of your paper. For example:

The Sea Turtle Restoration Project homepage presents a wealth of compelling, well-researched information on the struggle to save the world’s sea turtles from extinction (http://www.seaturtles.org).

More info

  • If you think that the content of a Web site will change over time, you can include the date that you viewed the cited information in your "retrieved from" line.
  • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

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Online Classroom Materials

Source

Reference List Citation

A document in a UMUC online classroom

Whitford, D. (2006). Cross-curricular initiatives in NSCI170. Document posted in University of Maryland University College NSCI 170 6981 online classroom, archived at: http://campus.umuc.edu

No official APA format for citing online classroom materials exists – this is merely a recommended format to use in citing such documents.

More info

  • In-text citation examples
  • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

Top


Conference Papers (Style Guide, p. 22)

Source

Reference List Citation

Library database or free Web

Levine, S., & Koltun, V. (2012, June-July). Continuous inverse optimal control with locally optimal examples. Paper presented at the 29th International Conference on Machine Learning, Edinburgh, Scotland. Retrieved from http://arxiv.org/pdf/1206.4617v1.pdf

APA does not address what to do with conference papers found in library databases.  We suggest that, following the guidelines given for periodical articles, that you use, "Retrieved from" followed by the URL of either the conference itself or the sponsoring organization, located via Google.

More info

  • In-text citation examples
  • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

Top


Technical and Research Reports (Publication Manual, pp. 205-206; Style Guide, pp. 19-21)

Source

Reference List Citation

Free Web

U.S. Government Accountability Office. (2010). Information security: Concerted effort needed to consolidate and secure Internet connections at federal agencies (Publication No. GAO-10-237). Retrieved from http://www.gao.gov/assets/310/301876.pdf

In print

U.S. Government Accountability Office. (2010). Information security: Concerted effort needed to consolidate and secure Internet connections at federal agencies (Publication No. GAO-10-237). Washington, DC: Author.

When the author is also the publisher, the publisher’s name should be listed as Author.

More info

  • In-text citation examples
  • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

Tip:

  • The element of the citation giving the publication or report number can be omitted if this information is not available for the source you’re citing.

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Legal Materials (Publication Manual, pp. 216-224)

Please see the following:

  • Court Decisions
  • Treaties and Other International Agreements
  • Federal Regulations: I. The Code of Federal Regulations
  • Federal Regulations: II. The Federal Register
  • Executive Orders
  • Patents
  • Charter of the United Nations
  • Federal Statutes (Also see Finding Federal Statutes )

See Introduction to APA Style Legal References for background information on citing legal materials.

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Dissertations and Theses (Publication Manual, pp. 207-208; Style Guide, pp. 22-23)

Dissertations

Source

Reference List Citation

Dissertations and Theses database

Pecore, J. T. (2004). Sounding the spirit of Cambodia: The living tradition of Khmer music and dance-drama in a Washington, DC community (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3114720)

Note that a “Retrieved from” statement is used, giving the database name followed by the word “database.” Also, APA calls for the citation to end with a unique identifying number for the dissertation, labeling it “UMI No.” That number can be found in Dissertations and Theses database, listed in the item record as “Dissertation/thesis number.”

Free Web

Caprette, C. L. (2005). Conquering the cold shudder: The origin and evolution of snake eyes (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://www.ohiolink.edu/etd/send-pdf.cgi?acc_num=osu1111184984

In print

Caprette, C. L. (2005). Conquering the cold shudder: The origin and evolution of snake eyes (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

More info

  • In-text citation examples
  • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

Master’s Theses

Source

Reference List Citation

Dissertations and Theses database

Harzbecker, J. J. (1999). Life and death in Washington DC: An analysis of the Mortality Census data of 1850 (Master’s thesis). Retrieved from Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 1395513)

Note that a “Retrieved from” statement is used, giving the database name followed by the word “database.” Also, APA calls for the citation to end with a unique identifying number for the dissertation, labeling it “UMI No.” That number can be found in Dissertations and Theses database, listed in the item record as “Publication Number.”

Free Web

Angelova, A. N. (2004). Data pruning (Master’s thesis). Retrieved from http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechETD:etd-05282004-000943

In print

Angelova, A. N. (2004). Data pruning (Master’s thesis). California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

More info

  • In-text citation examples
  • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

Top


Images (Style Guide, p. 27)

Titled Image

Source

Reference List Citation

Library database

Rousseau, H. (1896). The ship in the storm [Painting]. Retrieved from Oxford Art Online database.

Free Web

Rousseau, H. (1896). The ship in the storm [Painting]. Retrieved from http://www.uwm.edu/~wash/rousseau.jpg

Image reproduced in a printed source

Rousseau, H. (1896). The ship in the storm [Painting]. Henri Rousseau: Jungles in Paris. By Claire Fresches et al. Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art. 232.

The plate/image number (or, if this number is not available, the page number on which the image is printed) should follow the name of the publisher as shown.

More info

  • In-text citation examples
  • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

Untitled Image

Create a brief title for it and place it in brackets, unitalicized.

Source

Reference List Citation

Library database

Muybridge, E. (1887). [Photograph of a horse running]. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.

Image reproduced in a printed source

Muybridge, E. (1887). [Photograph of a horse running]. River of shadows: Eadweard Muybridge and the technological wild West. By Rebecca Solnit. New York, NY: Viking. 52.

The plate/image number (or, if this number is not available, the page number on which the image is printed) should follow the name of the publisher as shown.

More info

  • In-text citation examples
  • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

Tips:

  • Medium: If known, the medium of the image should be placed in brackets as shown above, and the collection which owns the image included in your citation along with its location.
  • Institution locations: For U.S. cities, add the standard postal abbreviations for state (for example, "Chatham, MA"). Foreign cities should be followed by the name of their country (ex. "Brisbane, Australia").

Top


Streaming Videos (Style Guide, p. 26)

Source

Example

Free Web

Heffernan, M. (2015, May). Margaret Heffernan: Why it’s time to forget the pecking order at work . Retrieved from https://www.ted.com/talks/margaret_heffernan_
why_it_s_time_to_forget_the_pecking_order_at_work

More info

  • In-text citation examples
  • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

Top


Interviews, E-mail Messages, and Other Personal Communications (Publication Manual, p. 179)

Source

Example

Personal communication

APA does not require that you cite personal communications (interviews you’ve conducted, e-mail messages, etc.) in your reference list. Instead, give an in-text citation only using the following model: 

Joe Smith (personal communication, November 18, 2006) informed me that the server had crashed several hours ago.

More info

  • In-text citation examples
  • General Rules has more information about citing multiple authors, undated sources, etc.

Top

Formatting a College Essay APA Style

Learning Objectives:

  • Employ correct citation format for APA style.
  • Identify proper APA formatting for college essays, including a references page.

LESSON
You will likely be asked to write numerous essaysA short piece of writing that focuses on at least one main idea. Some essays are also focused on the author’s unique point of view, making them personal or autobiographical, while others are focused on a particular literary, scientific, or political subject. over the course of your academic career. While the contentThe text in a writing that includes facts, thoughts, and ideas. The information that forms the body of the work. of your work is significant, it is also essential that you develop strong and accurate formattingThe way in which content is arranged, usually following a set of rules. In writing, outlines and essays often follow a format specified by their purpose or where they are published. skills. Formatting an essay correctly is not only good authorship but is also important to instructors who often have to read hundreds of essays over the course of a semester. Your instructors will likely provide you with essay guidelines indicating whether you should use MLAA grammar and reference guide used mainly by students and scholars writing about the humanities (languages and literature). or APAA set of guidelines for citing sources used in literary and academic writing. APA style is most commonly used in the social sciences. style to format your paper. If you are uncertain as to your instructor’s expectations, be sure to ask. Instructors appreciate students taking extra measures needed to correctly format essays. In this lesson, you will learn how to correctly format a college essay using APA style. Note: This foundation lesson is not meant to include or cover all of the rules and guidelines for properly formatting an essay. Be sure to refer to the APA style guide to ensure that you follow all of the formatting rules.

Part of formatting an essay is properly formatting in-text citationsInformation about a source, such as the author, date, and page number, in an essay or research paper that helps readers find the source in the works cited or references page. There are different rules for how to use in-text citations depending on the context of the citation and the style of formatting you are using. and your list of sourcesA person, book, article, or other thing that supplies information.. APA refers to the list of sources as a references pageAn alphabetized list of publication information about the sources used in an APA-formatted essay or research paper.. Keep in mind that in-text citations and the references page work together. Without one, you cannot have the other. The in-text citations lead readers to the listing of complete source information in the references page.

Formatting an Essay in APA Style

Headers and page numbers

In APA style, the headerInformation that appears at the very top of a page and may appear on subsequent pages of a work. appears on each page. It includes the title of the essay, which should be flush with the left marginThe outer edges of a document that do not contain writing or images. and in ALL CAPITAL letters. (If your title is longer than fifty characters, you will have to decide on a shorter version to use in your header.) On the title page only, include the words "Running head:" to precede the title. Consecutive page numbers are included on every page flush with the right-hand margin. (Examples will follow in the next section.)

APA Headers

 Content

  • Title in all capital letters (50 character limit)
  • Consecutive page numbers

 Location

  • 1/2" from top
  • Title: flush with left margin
  • Page numbers: flush with right margin
  • Include words "Running head:" to precede title on title page only

Cover pages

APA style requires the use of a cover pageA page that comes before an essay or article and contains basic information about the work, including its title and author. The format of a cover page (also called the title page) will vary depending on the style guide in use.. The cover page should include the title of your essay, your full name, and the name of your college or university, double-spaced and centered on the page. It should also include your header, as described above. (Some colleges and/or classes require additional or different information on the cover page; again, if you are unsure, be sure to visit your writing center or ask your instructor.)

APA Cover Page

 Cover page

 Separate cover page 

 preceding the essay

 Content

 On Cover Page:

  • Title
  • Your name
  • College or university name
  • Header

 Location

 Double-spaced and

 centered on the page

Here is an example of an APA cover page:

Here is an example of the first page of content in an APA paper:

Margins, font, and spacing

APA has specific requirements with respect to margins, fontA set of letters, numbers, and punctuation marks that are the same style. Examples: Times New Roman and Arial are fonts., and line spacingThe vertical distance between lines of text on a page. The most common types of spacing are single and double.. Set one-inch margins on all sides. Use 12-point font; APA style recommends using Times New Roman. If you are ever in doubt as to which font to use, ask your instructor. Whichever font you choose, remain consistent throughout your essay. Your essay should always be double-spaced throughout. Indent the first line of paragraphs one half-inch from the margin. Use only one space after all end punctuationThe punctuation at the end of a sentence, which can be a period, a question mark, or an exclamation point. The end punctuation helps define the tone and meaning of a sentence. Notice the difference in tone in these examples: Someone ate my last cookie! (I’m really mad about that.) Someone ate my last cookie. (Oh well, I wasn’t hungry anyway.) Someone ate my last cookie? (I’m not sure I even had another cookie.).

APA Margins, Font, and Spacing

 Margins

 1" on all sides

 Font

 12 point

 Times New Roman

 Spacing

 Double-spaced throughout

 Indent

 First line of paragraphs

 1/2" from left margin

 End punctuation

 One space following

Click here to view an example of the body of a properly formatted APA essay.

Punctuating and Formatting In-text Citations

Here are the guidelines for using in-text citations when using APA style.

  • In cases where a particular page is being cited, include the author’s last name, the date of publication, and the page number (page number applies to print sources).

Example:

  • If the author’s name is mentioned in the attributive phraseA short introduction to source material that identifies the author and often the title of a work that will be quoted or discussed in an essay or research paper. , the year of publication should follow the author’s name in parentheses. In this case, only the page number appears in the parenthetical in-text citation.

Example:

  • There are occasions when all pertinent information is included in the attributive phrase. In these cases, a parenthetical citation is not used.

Example:

There will be times when all the information for a citation is not available–for example, websites do not always list dates and usually do not include page numbers, sources are sometimes published without authors, and so on. If you cannot obtain all the required information on a source, provide as much information as you can in order to allow readers to find your source.

  • Here is an example of how to cite a web source, which does not require a page number, only the year published and name of the source:

Here are some more specific requirements with respect to the punctuationMarks such as such as a comma (,), period (.), question mark (?), and exclamation mark (!), among others, that help break a writing into phrases, clauses, and sentences. Different types of punctuation marks give the reader different impressions of the writer’s purpose in that sentence. and format of APA in-text citations:

  • The in-text citation goes inside the end punctuation. Remember that the in-text citation is part of the sentence in which the source materialInformation that is quoted or paraphrased from outside works, such as journal articles, online documents, and books. is used, so it must be included in the sentence by placing the period after the parentheses.
  • When citing a quotationAn exact copy of the words from a speech or text. These words are placed inside quotation marks to show that they are a perfect repeat of the original. , both the in-text citation and end punctuation go outside the closing quotation marksA set of single or double inverted commas (‘ ‘ or " ") that are placed around a word or passage to mark the beginning and end of a direct quotation or a title.. The end punctuation goes after the in-text citation, which is one of the few instances that end punctuation goes outside quotation marks.
  • Indent, by .5 inches, entire quotations that exceed forty words (however, do not indent the attributive phrase).
  • In block quotationsA copy of a long section of a text or speech, set off from the rest of a text. Block quotations, like direct quotations, are exact repeats of wording, but because of their length they are indented or printed in a different font rather than placed inside quotation marks., the in-text citation goes outside the end punctuation.

References Pages

APA style requires a references page to list the sources at the end of the work. Here are the guidelines for formatting a references page.

  • The references page needs to be double-spaced, and has the same 12-point font as the rest of the essay. Do not use bold font, do not underline any words, and do not resize the font in any way.
  • The references page should always begin a new page. The title—"References"—should be centered, but not bolded, underlined, or enclosed in quotes. (Note: if there is only one source, it should be titled "Reference.")
  • Individual citations must be arranged alphabetically. If you have more than one article or work from the same author, list the entries chronologically, from the earliest to the most recent.
  • Each full citation should have a hanging indent, which means that the first line should be on the left margin and all following lines indented by .5 inches.
  • The full citation must include all the information that a reader needs to find the original text. Generally, that includes:
    • Author(s) (listed with first initials and last names)
    • Year of publication
    • Title of work (chapter, article, web page, etc.)
    • Title of larger work, if applicable (book, newspaper, journal, magazine, website, etc.) in italics
    • Page numbers, when applicable
    • Publisher’s information, when applicable
  • For online sources, include either the "doi" (direct object identifier), if included in the source’s bibliographic information, or the URL in the following format: "Retrieved from [URL]."

+ PRACTICAL APPLICATION

You will encounter various situations over the course of your academic career in which you will be required to provide work with properly cited references. For example, imagine that your psychology instructor assigns an essay requiring evidentiary sourcesSpecific media, such as journal articles, newspapers, and research studies that provide the support for claims or viewpoints expressed in an essay and help convince readers that an argument has merit. Evidentiary sources may provide facts and statistics, expert opinions, or anecdotal evidence.. This will require you to research and compile a list of citations for your sources. As you are writing, you will incorporate in-text citations into your essay. Another scenario in which you will need to provide in-text citations and a references page is when you are asked to write an essay to support your findings in a science lab. While this essay should be based upon your own experiential evidence in the lab, you will need to do research to provide additional support for your findings.

Any time you use the ideasA thought, opinion, or impression., argumentsA set of statements or reasons making a case for or against something., theoriesIn science, a well tested and widely accepted explanation for a phenomenon. Theories incorporate facts, observations, experiments, laws, and careful reasoning. In more general usage, theory may merely mean an unproven idea, speculation, or guesswork., or words of another writer, you must provide correct and properly formatted citations. Be sure to check with your instructors regarding what style they prefer for formatting any essay you are assigned.

+ EXAMPLE

Exercise 1:  APA In-text Citations

This section provides five examples demonstrating incorrect punctuation and format for in-text citations in APA style. As you read, notice the errors and how they should be corrected.

  1. Marciano (2007) challenges fellow educators to present to students "the other side of history" that "“rarely makes it into schools, textbooks, and mass media" (Marciano, 2007).

This sentence contains one error. Since the author’s name and the year of publication are given in the attributive phrase, and a particular passage is quoted, the in-text citation should include the page number rather than the author’s name and year.

Correction: Marciano (2007) challenges fellow educators to present to students "the other side of history" that "rarely makes it into schools, textbooks, and mass media" (p. 598).

  1. In The Future Is Up to Us, Peery claims that the U.S. is "by far the most ideological nation on earth" (2002, pg. 235).

This sentence contains three errors. First, the name of the book should appear in italics. Second, the year of publication should appear in parentheses after the author’s name when the author’s name appears in the attributive phrase. Third, the correct APA page number abbreviation is "p." not "pg."

Correction: In The Future Is Up to Us, Peery (2002) claims that the U.S. is "by far the most ideological nation on earth" (p. 235).  

  1. Arguably, fascist propaganda became more prevalent in U.S. society during the Cold War: "As we know, fascist agitation has by now come to be a profession, as it were, a livelihood. It had plenty of time to test the effectiveness of its various appeals and, through what might be called natural selection, only the most catchy ones have survived" (Adorno, 1951, p. 148).

This sentence contains two errors. Quotations over forty words should be formatted as block quotations, with the entire quotation being indented by one-half inch and without using quotation marks. Second, if the quotation is formatted as a block quotation, the period is placed before the parenthetical citation.

Correction: Arguably, fascist propaganda became more prevalent in U.S. society during the Cold War:

As we know, fascist agitation has by now come to be a profession, as it were, a livelihood. It had plenty of time to test the effectiveness of its various appeals and, through what might be called natural selection, only the most catchy ones have survived. (Adorno, 1951, p. 148)

  1. During the early years of ecology as a field of study, scientists looked to communities of organisms to help them explain human behavior (Mitman; The State of Nature 2003; 352).

This sentence contains two errors. An APA in-text citation does not require the title of the source. Also, commas are used in in-text citations rather than semicolons, and "p." should precede the page number.

Correction: During the early years of ecology as a field of study, scientists looked to communities of organisms to help them explain human behavior (Mitman, 2003, p. 352).

  1. In the 1950s, anti-union campaigns developed as a reaction to strong union participation in the 1930s and 1940s (Phillips & Fein).

This in-text citation is missing at least one key piece of information: the year of publication. If the citation refers to a complete work, as opposed to a particular page in the work, it would be correct to include only the author(s) and year of publication. If it refers to a particular page, it should include the page number (if available, and preceded by "p."), as well.   

Correction: In the 1950s, anti-union campaigns developed as a reaction to strong union participation in the 1930s and 1940s (Phillips & Fein, 2013, p. 503).

Exercise 2: APA Formatting Errors

In this exercise, practice looking for formatting errors in an APA essay. Click here to view an incorrectly formatted APA sample essay. Notice the errors in the essay and the references page and their explanations that follow.

  1. The header should have a short title of the essay (no longer than fifty characters) and should have the correct page number. On the cover page only, the header should include "Running head: [title of essay]" with the page number. This example incorrectly has the student name instead of the title of the essay.
  2. The essay should include a cover sheet with only the following elements: the title, the author’s full name, and the name of the college or university, double-spaced and centered on the page. It should also include a header, as described above. (Some colleges and/or classes require additional or different information on the cover page; again, if you are unsure, be sure to visit your writing center or ask your instructor.)
  3. The title should appear on the first page of the essay. It should be in regular font with no bold or underlining. This title uses 14-point font, which is too large, and it is bolded.
  4. Throughout the essay, the lines should be double-spaced. This essay is single-spaced throughout.
  5. The first lines of all paragraphs should be indented by .5 inches. These paragraphs are not indented.
  6. Do not insert extra spaces between the heading and the title of paper, between titles or subheadings and paragraphs, or between paragraphs. This essay has an extra line between the paragraphs.
  7. The proper title for the pages listing source materials is "References," not "Bibliography." Just like the title of the essay appearing on the first page, the title of the References page should be in 12-point font with no bolding or underlining.
  8. Citations consisting of more than one line of text require a hanging indent, which means the first line of the citation is flush with the left-hand margin and all other lines are indented by .5 inches. Hanging indentation is not used in these incorrectly formatted entries.
  9. Use only one easily read font throughout the essay. Fonts such as Calibri, Cambria, Arial, or Times New Roman are good ones to use. This essay uses a combination of Times New Roman and Comic Sans.
  10. Each citation must include sufficient source information—in the case of these sources, the author’s name, the date of publication, the name of the source, and either the doi, if known, or the URL preceded by the words "Retrieved from [URL]."
  11. The sources should be arranged alphabetically by the first entry in each citation (which is usually the author’s last name) and they should not be numbered.

Now, click here to view the example with the mistakes corrected.

+ YOUR TURN

Exercise 1: APA In-text Citations

This section provides five examples of in-text citations in APA style. Now it’s your turn to determine if the examples have been properly punctuated and formatted. Identify the errors, if any, and correct the in-text citation accordingly.

This section provides five examples of in-text citations in APA style. Now it’s your turn to determine if the examples have been properly punctuated and formatted. Identify the errors, if any, and correct the in-text citation accordingly.

  1. The Sabhnanis, Hindu Sindhi immigrants from India, own a perfumery that they run out of their home. They have been incarcerated for their abuses of Samirah and Enung (Konigsberg; page 320; 2008).

What errors (if any) does this in-text citation contain?

+ 

Answer

This in-text citation contains three errors. The punctuation mark used after "Koenigberg" should be a comma, not a semicolon; the page number should appear after the year of publication, not before it, and be preceded by "p." not "page."

Write the corrected in-text citation (if necessary).

+ 

Answer

Correction: The Sabhnanis, Hindu Sindhi immigrants from India, own a perfumery that they run out of their home. They have been incarcerated for their abuses of Samirah and Enung (Konigsberg, 2008, p. 320).

  1. While slaves in the early Americas generally were limited to those from Africa, today the overwhelming majority of the 12.3 million ("U.N. and Partners") migrant domestic workers forced into labor are women and girls from a variety of second- and third-world countries.

What errors (if any) does this in-text citation contain?

+ 

Answer

This citation includes two errors. The correct citation would include the author’s name (which in this case happens to be a corporate author, the United Nations). Also, the writer left out the year of publication. (Because the citation refers to a complete study, rather than a quote or paraphrase, no specific page number is required.)

Write the corrected in-text citation (if necessary).

+ 

Answer

Correction: While slaves in the early Americas generally were limited to those from Africa, today the overwhelming majority of the 12.3 million migrant domestic workers forced into labor are women and girls from a variety of second- and third-world countries (United Nations, 2007).

  1. According to two online sources, the Involuntary Domestic Servitude (2010) report from the U.S. Department of State, as well as the U.S. Department of State’s Trafficking in Persons Report (2013), domestic workers typically work without contracts or legal protection.

What errors (if any) does this in-text citation contain?

+ 

Answer

This entry is correctly cited and formatted. The sources are online, so they do not have page numbers. Also, the writer included the year of publication for both sources mentioned within the attributive phrases.

Write the corrected in-text citation (if necessary).

+ 

Answer

No correction necessary.

  1. With difficulty, she found help to leave this terrible situation and start her life over (Montouvalou 35).

What errors (if any) does this in-text citation contain?

+ 

Answer

This citation is not complete. Assuming it refers to a particular page in the source, it must contain the author’s name, the year of publication, and the page number, all separated by commas. The page number should be indicated by the abbreviation "p."

Write the corrected in-text citation (if necessary).

+ 

Answer

Correction: With difficulty, she found help to leave this terrible situation and start her life over (Montouvalou, 2013, p. 35).

  1. Smith and Donnerstein argue that "young children are less able to distinguish fantasy from reality, or to draw appropriate inferences from a violent story line, than are older children and adults." ("Harmful effects of exposure to media violence").

What errors (if any) does this in-text citation contain?

+ 

Answer

This citation contains four errors. The year of publication should follow the authors’ names in the sentence. The name of the article in parentheses is not necessary because the reader will learn what article by Smith and Donnerstein is referenced by consulting the References page. Since the reference is a quotation, the page number should be included. Finally, the period should not appear at the end of the quote, but only after the closing parenthesis.

Write the corrected in-text citation (if necessary).

+ 

Answer

Correction: Smith and Donnerstein (2008) argue that "young children are less able to distinguish fantasy from reality, or to draw appropriate inferences from a violent story line, than are older children and adults" (p. 286).

Exercise 2: APA Formatting Errors

In this exercise, identify the formatting errors in an APA essay. Click here to view an incorrectly formatted APA sample essay. Identify the errors and explain how to correct those errors.

Identify the formatting errors in this essay.

+ 

Answer

  1. The cover sheet material should contain the title, author’s name, and school name. This entry unnecessarily contains the word "by" before the essay author’s name.
  2. The header should contain the title of the essay, flush left, and the page number, flush right. For the title page only, "Running head:" should precede the title. This heading is wrong because it contains the title and the author’s name and because it does not include the page number.
  3. Margins should be 1 inch throughout the essay. The margins in this paper are .5 inches.
  4. The title should be 12-point font like the rest of the essay. It should not be bold or underlined. This title is bolded and underlined, and it is in 14-point font.
  5. The essay should be double-spaced throughout. This essay’s line spacing is inconsistent, which makes it unevenly formatted.
  6. The first line of each paragraph should be indented .5 inches. These paragraphs are indented a full inch.
  7. The title of the references list should be "References" and it should be centered in regular 12-point font. This title is left-aligned and in 14-point, bolded, underlined type.
  8. The references list should be on a separate page from the essay.
  9. Use hanging indentation for citations that are longer than one line. The second line and every line thereafter should be indented .5 inches.
  10. Citations should not be numbered. They should also not be bulleted like these are.
  11.  Citations should be properly formatted and punctuated, with proper use of italics, parentheses, commas, and end punctuation.
  12. For online sources, if the doi (digital object identifier) isn’t available, include the URL at the end of the citation by typing "Retrieved from [URL]."
  13. Citations should appear in alphabetical order. In this list, the last few entries are out of order. Also, some of the authors’ names have full names instead of first initials and last names.

Click here to view the corrected essay with notes.

+ METACOGNITIVE QUESTIONS

Why is it important to correctly format your essays in college?

+ 

Sample Answer

It is important to correctly format my essays because instructors expect this of their students. Plus, if I turn in properly formatted essays, my instructors will know that I have made an effort to follow their guidelines, so it will probably positively impact my grade and reflect well on the quality of my work.

Why do you need to include both an in-text citation and a references page?

+ 

Sample Answer

Neither the in-text citation information nor the references page provide enough information regarding your sources by themselves. In-text citations and the references page work together to allow you to write a smooth and cohesive essay (rather than one that is broken up by full citations), provide the details required by APA style, and enable your readers to locate any of your sources.

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