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Play and child development sample essay
Play and Child Development Sample Essay
Every child needs play as this greatly contributes to their physical,
social, and emotional well-being. There are different reasons why
people play and these includeexcitement and pleasure. By playing,
children get a chance to not only express themselves but also spend
time with their parents. In addition, through playing, children can learn
how to cope with their own feelings especially when they feignfeelings
such as anger, sadness, and worry. This makes them gain positive
emotions and can thus significantly contribute to a good self-sentiment
and good health. Furthermore, it also fosters relationships and enables
children to feel relaxed as they have fun. Play can also improve the
value of life for the entire family. This research paper highlights how
important play is in the development of children, in terms of
physical,social,intellectual and emotional growth.The paper will also
end by explaining the effects on the children’s development causes the
lack of play.
Play is an activity that is chosen freely and is motivated and directed
from within.Adequate space for play space and a wide variety of play
materials can be crucial in the development of children (Goldstein,
2012). In early childhood education, play is particularly valued and
embedded in the curriculum.The importance of play is stemmed from
the contribution it makes towards the cognitive,physical,social and
emotional well-being of children and youth (Ginsburg,
2005).Continuous play between children and their peers as well as
adults can enhance their social competence and emotional maturity.
Play is considered as the pillar of the society since it facilitates
communication between people especially because they are expected
to handle various roles. During play, children develop all the skills
required, making it a very significant aspect of their lives (Goldstein,
2012). The development of different cognitive, affective and personal
processes are dependent on play and these are aspectes that are
important for the adaptive functioning of children (Russ, 2003). This
paper seeks to show the necessity of playing in the growth and
development of children.
Child developmental trends and milestones
Children undergo many developmental changes from the moment of
their birth until they reach five years of age. These first years are very
important in children’s growth especially because they determine the
personality of the children. Some of the milestones experienced in
terms of children’s development include physical, social, cognitive, and
linguistic growth because children develop their body parts, the
strength, and ability to move, cry, and talk. Additionally, there are also
physical milestones such as rolling, sitting, crawling, standing without
support, walking and running that children experience while emotional
milestones include smiling at people, laughing, and responding to
diverse situations in different ways. Children can also experience
cognitive milestones including the exploration of new objects such as
toys, picking up things and disarranging them, making reason inquiries
like why some things are the way they are. Linguistic milestones that
are experienced include babbling, imitating speech sounds, talking and
singing or mimicking some rhymes. As reach child grow, the
developmental milestonesevolve but the growth takes place at
different paces for different children.
Theories and strategies that facilitate child development
There have been continuous studies on child development by different
psychologists. During such studies, the psychologists focus more on the
nature and development of human beings with some of the common
child development theories being psychoanalytic, social, cognitive, and
behavioral theories. In both social and cognitive theories, play is
regarded as essential because the theorists are of the opinion that the
relationships that children develop with their caregivers early in life
ultimately play a major role in shaping the type of persons they grow
into in the future. This also influences how they relate with other
people later in life and their socialization techniques with others. In the
cognitive theory, the theorist, Jean Piaget, suggests that prior to
developing independent thinking, children go through fixed stages that
shape their minds. This makes play an important aspect in the
children’s lives especially in terms of informing them about their
environment and the objects around them.
Piaget’s cognitive development theory
The cognitive development theory is more concerned about how
children think at each stage of growth. Children often collect
information and gather knowledge from the people and environment
around them so that they can be able to comprehend the things that
they know. By playing with different objects and their peers. children
are able to learn more concerning their world.Piaget gives an analysis
of the four stages of development experienced by children in which he
categorizes each stage according to the ages of the children as well as
the activities that occur in their lives and affect development. According
to him, it is by going through different experiences that children grow
and such experiences shape how they comprehend things until they
reach the age of eleven.
This theory states that the development occurs at every stage in the life
of a person and as such places a lot of emphasis on the emotional and
social components of growth and development. According to Erickson
the environment in which children grow in has a great influence on the
personalities that they develop and this is mainly because they learn
mostly through observation. As such, the more exposure to play and
interaction that children get, the morethey develop in terms of
personality. Erickson developed a theory that is categorized into eight
stages of growth and clearly depicts the social conflicts that one has to
go through and resolve in each stage before they can proceed or move
on to the next stage. It is therefore necessary for people around the
children need to be there for them and also assist them in resolving the
conflict in order to facilitate normal development to the next
stage.Maturity and the social groups that these children are exposed to
determine whether or not children proceed from one stage to the
other successfully. Erickson was of the opinion that each of the eight
stages focused on overcoming a particular conflict and children could
only function optimally if they dealt with the conflicts they encountered
at each stage in an ideal manner.
Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic theory
Sigmund Freud believed that a child’s development process was based
on a series of psychosexual stages that give pleasure to the child and
these stages were categorized into four namely: oral, anal, latency and
genital. Each of these four stages entailed gratifying specific desires
that the child develops during the process of growing up. According to
him, the gratification of such desires heavily influenced a child’s
personality in the future. Even though Freud placed a lot of emphasis
on the influence of childhood experiences and events, his theory did
not focus much on normal functioning.
The role of play in physical, social, language and literacy development
The overall development of children is heavily influenced by play and
children learn new things and reap many benefits such as social,
physical, emotional, language and literacy gains from the process of
Outdoor playing is a means through which children can exercise and by
increasing their outdoor activities, children can be able to avoid
obesity. Apart from burning calories, children can have a lot of fun
while playing outside. Play is considered to have huge healthy benefits
because it helps children to avoid carrying weight issues and health
problems as they transition into adulthood(Goldstein 2012, p. 23).
Through play, children can gain an increased range of motion as well as
coordination. In addition, they also derive many positive emotions from
playing and this helps to boost their immunity while at the same time
reducing fatigue and depression.
Socially, children can become more sociable when they interact with
their playmates and different toys. They also learn how to socialize in
different situations and use diverse emotions. Through pretences and
play games, children can gain significant experiences in their abilities to
alter objects and actions as well as roles that have symbolic meaning.
They therefore have a chance to express themselves through arguing,
negotiating and interacting when they take up the roles that they like
during playtime. In essence, pretence gives children the platform
through which they can learn how to plan, negotiate and solve
problems (Bergen Vol.4). When exposed to play, children can easily
learn how to make decisions and master important skills and this helps
them later to develop confidence and be proud of themselves
(Anderson-McNamee&Bailey, 2010 p.3).
Still within social aspects, play helps children to develop increased
empathy, compassion and generosity as they learn to share their toys
with others and even apologize and show concern whenever one of
them is injured. Such emotions, enhance the attachment that they have
and the attention they pay towards both their toys and their playmates.
This ultimately helps them to create and model friendships with other
Play is also essential in the language and literacy development of the
children. According to research, there is a strong link between early
active social play and the development of good communication skills
later in life. Language development in children can also be enhanced by
playing with blocks. During play. children interact with their peers and
as such they are forced to concentrate and pay attention in order to
hear and understand the conversations they have with one another.
Play can also motivate children to broaden the scope of their actions
and enhance their confidence as well as linguistic abilities. Children
who are exposed to play, learn language skills earlier than when they
start attending school (Goldstein 2012, p.12).
Creativity in children is also developed during play. Children who get
time off other duties to play, become more attentive especially in their
schoolwork. Leaving children to initiate their own kind of games, gives
them room to become more creative as opposed to when they are
supervised by an adult (Goldstein 2012, p.13).
There are certain toys that can help children with learning. These
include those that teach letters vocabulary spelling as well as pre-
reading skills. When children play with such toys they develop language
skills because they keep an open-mind during play.
It is evident that children can gain many advantages when exposed to
play. Through play, children can gain intelligence as it helps in brain
development and also establishes new neural connections. The speed
at which a child’s brain develops is dependent on how frequent they
are exposed to play. In addition. children who are playful tend to
mature emotionally since they gain more from their interaction with
When children begin to attend school, is is necessary to give them
room to play frequently since they need to adjust from the home
setting to the new school environment where they meet other children.
This will not only prepare the for their studies but also help them to
gain cognitive abilities and erase any worries or fears of failing to learn
as they begin a new life in school. During their breaksfrom play,
children can learn and practice the basic social skills. Furthermore, they
can discover more concerning their new environment, interact and
make new friends (Anderson-McNamee &Bailey 2010 p.3).
Current lifestyles deny most children the opportunities to play and this
therefore makes their development less effective. Majority of the
children are encouraged to stay in-doors and play video games or even
watch television, aspects that have adverse effects on their growth and
development. Many parents also tend to focus on academic
achievements and hence take their children to school at a very early
stage, and this gives the children less time to play and spend free time
Developmental delay is used to refer to the failure of a child to grow
according to normal expectations. There are diverse factors that cause
developmental delay cases and although some are realized early into
infancy, there are those that only become noticeable when time comes
for the child to go to school. Some of the factors attributed to
developmental delay include genetic makeup of the child, infections
that a mother had when pregnant, premature birth and sometimes
Parents ought to be very keen with their children during their infancy
and growth periods and consult pediatricians whenever they feel the
delay of certain milestones in their children. This is of high importance
because they can easily realize in case their baby has a problem and
learn how to handle with it. Parents can also be able to seek help from
the appropriate institutions so as to avoid a situation whereby the
delay prevents the child from leading a fulfilling and enjoyable life.
Children who experience developmental delays engage in therapy
games that can help them to improve their weak skills. Children can
also learn a lot during their playtime and they can learn to handle
different toys by being exposed to sufficient play hence making them
Effects of play deprivation
Human beings are naturally born with the urge to play making it an
innate ability that is embedded within human beings. According to a
study that was conducted on Harlow’s monkeys depreciated exposure
to play severely damaged their chances of growing into well functioning
adults. Likewise, human beings need sufficient play in order to grow
and develop effectively. Children risk abnormal and deviant behavior
when they are given less or no chance to play.
Peter Gray 2011, blames play deprivation on the increase of the cases
of social misbehavior and psychopathology in young people. This is
because play enables children to not only make decisions but also
develop problem solving skills and these aspects guide them to control
their emotions. Children also find joy and happiness during play
because they are able to interact and associate with their friends who
they treat as their equal counterparts. Ultimately, the impacts
generated by that play on the development of children improves their
mental health. Children that lack the opportunity to play, tend to lose
out and end up with mental issues that affect them for the rest of their
lives. These children can become mentally disturbed, restless,
aggressive and violent. All these traits become evident in children who
are not given the chance to play because they do not get the chance to
learn how to control their feelings and therefore they miss the self
control when adults. Some of the negative consequences that play
deprivation can have on persons include problems with optimal
learning, self control, normal social functioning and lack of proper
maturity (Gold stein 2012, p.27).
In a study conducted by Brown and Lomax, a group of murderers and
NobelPrize winners were observed and their childhood
scrutinized.Through a follow-up on their play histories, these
researchers found out that playing is a vital aspect in childhood. The
lack of exposure to play activities during their childhood was among the
key factors that led them to become the kind of adults they became.
They further realized that play can help to modify anti social behavior in
children (Brown 2013 p. 5).
Friedrich Frobel asserted that, “Play is the highest expression of human
development in childhood, it is the free expression of what is in the soul
of the child.”(Goldstein 2012 p.31). The need to play in children is
comparable to the need for food in human beings. Play is a need that
helps to promote good health, emotional and social wellness as well as
a full expression of what it means to be human. Regardless of their
lifestyle, every parent needs to give their child sufficient time to play in
order to facilitate their growth and allow their body organs to develop
healthily, as well as give them room to become responsible adults in
The above essay was written by an expert at PremiumEssays.net. We
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Bergen, D. (2002). The role of pretend play in children’s cognitive
development. ERIC Clearinghouse.
Brown, F.(2013). Play deprivation: impact, consequences and the
potential of play work. Retrieved
Ginsburg, K. R. (2007). The importance of play in promoting healthy
child development and maintaining strong parent-child
bonds. Pediatrics, 119(1), 182-191.
Goldstein, J. (2012). Play in children’s development, health and well-
being. Retrieved from:
Hughes, F. P. (2010). Children, play, and development. Los Angeles:
The Importance of Play in Early Childhood Development
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Child and Adolescent Development – Free essay, anybody? 🙂
Child and Adolescent Development
Child and Adolescent development covers a span of roughly thirteen years, eighteen if infancy and toddler stages are included. Through these eighteen years, children grow and develop in a myriad of ways. As talked about previously, there are several theories of child and adolescent development. Each suggests that children develop in a similar way, yet each also stresses that different parts of development are of primary importance. What, then, are the primary criteria for children to develop successfully?
Successful emotional and cognitive development is commonly believed to be two separate processes. Yet, according to a study by Martha Ann Bell and Christy D. Wolfe, emotional and cognitive behaviors and developments are linked and act upon each other an with each other to process ideas and information, and to act (2004, 1). For children to develop successfully then, both processes must be taken into consideration. A child who is emotionally delayed will not be able to excel cognitively, and vise-versa.
For children to develop, they need to be offered an environment in which they feel safe and protected, able to explore both their own feelings and their actions. This environment also must be cognitively and physically stimulating, offering new and unique concepts while maintaining familiarity. Finally, this environment must allow the child to see and be a part of society and experience societal norms. Without this key piece, the child will be unable to successfully function in their own society.
Societal expectations and norms play a major role in child development. Vygotsky presents social learning theory, as does Bandura. Vygotsky suggests that children develop and experience society in zones, and how those zones interrelate affects the childs development. Bandura, similarly, suggests that children learn behaviors and concepts through interaction with society, and that the behaviors they learn influence how they think and what they believe. Piaget, Bruner, Erikson, Freud, everyone suggests that in some way society plays the key role in childrens development. Indeed, it must. Because for children to develop successfully, they must firmly understand how their own society works, so that they may alter their behaviors to fit within that society. Behavior and thinking patterns even are societally linked, and are learned behaviors.
Therefore, the criteria for successful child and adolescent cognitive and emotional development is an environment that allows the child to develop and achieve their own needs, and yet one that also allows the child to learn about the society in which they live, so that their actions will not hinder their ability to become a part of that society. This criterion depends on the childs ability to interpret their own surroundings, and to be able to interact successfully with their environment. Children with disabilities will be limited then in their ability to successfully engage in societal growth, forcing them to learn to adapt, or forcing society to adapt to their needs. With this in mind, it is clear then that physical development plays a role in both emotional and cognitive development.
Looking at development as learned behavior, understanding normal child and adolescent development and recognizing its link to physical development becomes much simpler. Simply put, all of development is closely interrelated. Normal child and adolescent development successfully ends in a person who is able to live and interact in the society in which they were trained. These people understand societal norms and expectations, and use just such rules to monitor and self-select their behaviors.
Brofenbrenners theory of development is particularly relevant to a discussion of physical and cognitive development. His theory of micro and macro systems working together to allow a child to develop suggest that all parts of development are closely interrelated, and that if any part of development is delayed, all other areas of development will be affected (Papalia at al., 2006, p. 36-38). As a child develops, physically, they begin to recognize the limitations that are placed on them both by their own body, and by society.
Normal development requires a child to be able to interact with their environment, and to interpret their findings. Children who have had physical delays or physical disabilities will be limited in their ability to successfully interact with their environment. Children who have cognitive or emotional delays or disabilities will have trouble interpreting their findings, which with also delay their development.
According to Wilson, there is a biological basis for all behavior. His research draws on other areas of science (including biology and anthropology) and looks at the impact of biology and social development (Papalia at al., 2006, p. 35). From Wilsons work, it is clear that children who are delayed in their physical development will also be delayed in their ability to develop cognitively and emotionally. Additionally, these children will experience a different social reality that children who have not experienced physical disability will, since people react to and act differently towards people with disabilities. Looking at how abnormal development is affected by physical development, it is clear that there is a link between different developmental areas and how they affect one another.
For children who develop normally, this interplay is hardly recognizable, as each area develops successfully and does not require review. Yet physical growth requires the body to recognize and utilize outside experiences to develop (i.e. recognizing that climbing will help build muscle memory) and the emotional ability to feel safe about trying new things. Therefore, physical development relies on emotional and cognitive development to be successful. Emotional development relies on thinking to interpret situations and to recognize peoples responses, in addition to being able to interpret their responses and shape behaviors accordingly. Emotional development relies on physical development to be able to shape those behaviors. Cognitive development relies on both physical and emotional development to shape thoughts about behaviors, and to carry out the thoughts. If at any point one of these areas is delayed or limited, both of the other areas will be similarly limited.
Child and adolescent development is a complex intertwining of systems and mechanisms, all of which take place in the greater world environment. Each theory and theorist has a different view on development, and yet, they all agree that the one thing that affects development most is the external, societal environment.
Bell, Martha Ann & Wolfe, Christy D. (2004)Emotion and Cognition: An Intricately Bound Developmental Process. Child Development 75 (2), 366-370.
Papalia, D., Olds, S., & Feldman, R. (2006). A childs world: Infancy through
adolescence. New York: McGraw-Hill.
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I wish it was my company… 🙂
At the time of ordering the paper (and later in a follow-up email) you wrote you would combine the two parts of the paper yourself, but at the end (after receiving the completed paper) you "changed your mind." I wasnt paid for several hours of my work (since your payment has been refunded).
I wish you good luck in your studies.
Why dont you post your entire paper so that we could compare?
you are going to burn in HELL.
I googled the 2006 edition of "A childs world: Infancy through
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Silverlake, your argument is weak to start with (nonsensical in relation to the book) and you certainly do yourself no favors with your inflammatory comments.
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How Attachment Affect Children Development
Multiple studies have documented the physical, social, intellectual, and psychological effects that attachment has on child development. Children need consistent, secure emotional relationship with their primary caregiver so as to grow and develop feeling safe, protected and nurtured. The attachment theory stipulates that infants and young children require consistent relationship with particular people in order to thrive and develop. Attachment is described as a fundamental need with a biological basis where young infants or children need to maintain a sense of security with a particular person. It has the implicit goals of maintaining an infant’s feeling of security, regulating their affective states, promoting expressions of feelings, and enhancing communication. According to Simpson (1998), attachment relationships often develop within the first 6 months of life and are the avenues within which positive feelings, communication and play are expressed.
Secure attachment is associated with effective dependence which directly promotes effective independence. Research by Simpson (1998) reported that, compared to their counterparts, securely attached children were more capable of regulating their emotional distress. They were more easygoing, caring, empathetic and socially competent. Children who enjoy healthy forms of attachment are, therefore, capable of forming more positive relationships with their parents, teachers, siblings, and pears. Secure attachment enables children to develop less anxious personalities hence are healthily dependent and more capable of performing well in cognitively challenging situations.
Conversely, insecure attachment has been shown to negatively affect the child’s growth and development. It adversely affects their mental, behavioral, and emotional development. Insecurely attached children have limited abilities to explore their environments in healthy ways hence turn out to be apprehensive, disorganized, and anxious due to the rejecting, hostile or inconsistent attention to their needs. Additionally, insecure attachment has been associated with hostility towards other children, unhealthy dependency during school years, vulnerability to issues of peer pressure, and higher degrees of self-doubt.
Attachment indubitably affects children in terms of cognition, behavior, emotional responses, personality, and social skills. Failure to meet the baby or child’s attachment needs results into attachment difficulties which significantly affect children’s learning and development. Secure attachment broadly enhance development while insecurity directly compromises it leading to immature, passive, and socially isolated children who are not only hostile and aggressive, but also emotionally insulated.
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