Compare/Contrast Essays

Compare/Contrast Essays

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Unit 4: Types of Writing

Compare/Contrast Essays


This section will help you determine the purpose and structure of comparison/contrast in writing.

The Purpose of Compare/Contrast in Writing

Comparison in writing discusses elements that are similar, while contrast in writing discusses elements that are different. A compare-and-contrast essay, then, analyzes two subjects by comparing them, contrasting them, or both.

The key to a good compare-and-contrast essay is to choose two or more subjects that connect in a meaningful way. The purpose of conducting the comparison or contrast is not to state the obvious but rather to illuminate subtle differences or unexpected similarities. For example, if you wanted to focus on contrasting two subjects you would not pick apples and oranges; rather, you might choose to compare and contrast two types of oranges or two types of apples to highlight subtle differences. For example, Red Delicious apples are sweet, while Granny Smiths are tart and acidic. Drawing distinctions between elements in a similar category will increase the audience’s understanding of that category, which is the purpose of the compare-and-contrast essay.

Similarly, to focus on comparison, choose two subjects that seem at first to be unrelated. For a comparison essay, you likely would not choose two apples or two oranges because they share so many of the same properties already. Rather, you might try to compare how apples and oranges are quite similar. The more divergent the two subjects initially seem, the more interesting a comparison essay will be.

The Structure of a Compare/Contrast Essay

The compare-and-contrast essay starts with a thesis that clearly states the two subjects that are to be compared, contrasted, or both and the reason for doing so. The thesis could lean more toward comparing, contrasting, or both. Remember, the point of comparing and contrasting is to provide useful knowledge to the reader. Take the following thesis as an example that leans more toward contrasting:

Thesis Statement: Organic vegetables may cost more than those that are conventionally grown, but when put to the test, they are definitely worth every extra penny.

Here the thesis sets up the two subjects to be compared and contrasted (organic versus conventional vegetables), and it makes a claim about the results that might prove useful to the reader.

You may organize compare-and-contrast essays in one of the following two ways:

  1. According to the subjects themselves, discussing one then the other
  2. According to individual points, discussing each subject in relation to each point

The organizational structure you choose depends on the nature of the topic, your purpose, and your audience.

Given that compare-and-contrast essays analyze the relationship between two subjects, it is helpful to have some phrases on hand that will cue the reader to such analysis.

Phrases of Comparison and Contrast


one similarity

one difference
another similarityanother difference
likein contrast
in a similar fashionwhereas

Writing an Compare/Contrast Essay

First choose whether you want to compare seemingly disparate subjects, contrast seemingly similar subjects, or compare and contrast subjects. Once you have decided on a topic, introduce it with an engaging opening paragraph. Your thesis should come at the end of the introduction, and it should establish the subjects you will compare, contrast, or both as well as state what can be learned from doing so.

The body of the essay can be organized in one of two ways: by subject or by individual points. The organizing strategy that you choose will depend on, as always, your audience and your purpose. You may also consider your particular approach to the subjects as well as the nature of the subjects themselves; some subjects might better lend themselves to one structure or the other. Make sure to use comparison and contrast phrases to cue the reader to the ways in which you are analyzing the relationship between the subjects.

After you finish analyzing the subjects, write a conclusion that summarizes the main points of the essay and reinforces your thesis.

Compare/Contrast Essay Example

Comparing and Contrasting London and Washington, DC

By Scott McLean in Writing for Success

Both Washington, DC, and London are capital cities of English-speaking countries, and yet they offer vastly different experiences to their residents and visitors. Comparing and contrasting the two cities based on their history, their culture, and their residents show how different and similar the two are.

Both cities are rich in world and national history, though they developed on very different time lines. London, for example, has a history that dates back over two thousand years. It was part of the Roman Empire and known by the similar name, Londinium. It was not only one of the northernmost points of the Roman Empire but also the epicenter of the British Empire where it held significant global influence from the early sixteenth century on through the early twentieth century. Washington, DC, on the other hand, has only formally existed since the late eighteenth century. Though Native Americans inhabited the land several thousand years earlier, and settlers inhabited the land as early as the sixteenth century, the city did not become the capital of the United States until the 1790s. From that point onward to today, however, Washington, DC, has increasingly maintained significant global influence. Even though both cities have different histories, they have both held, and continue to hold, significant social influence in the economic and cultural global spheres.

Both Washington, DC, and London offer a wide array of museums that harbor many of the world’s most prized treasures. While Washington, DC, has the National Gallery of Art and several other Smithsonian galleries, London’s art scene and galleries have a definite edge in this category. From the Tate Modern to the British National Gallery, London’s art ranks among the world’s best. This difference and advantage has much to do with London and Britain’s historical depth compared to that of the United States. London has a much richer past than Washington, DC, and consequently has a lot more material to pull from when arranging its collections. Both cities have thriving theater districts, but again, London wins this comparison, too, both in quantity and quality of theater choices. With regard to other cultural places like restaurants, pubs, and bars, both cities are very comparable. Both have a wide selection of expensive, elegant restaurants as well as a similar amount of global and national chains. While London may be better known for its pubs and taste in beer, DC offers a different bar-going experience. With clubs and pubs that tend to stay open later than their British counterparts, the DC night life tend to be less reserved overall.

Both cities also share and differ in cultural diversity and cost of living. Both cities share a very expensive cost of living—both in terms of housing and shopping. A downtown one-bedroom apartment in DC can easily cost $1,800 per month, and a similar “flat” in London may double that amount. These high costs create socioeconomic disparity among the residents. Although both cities’ residents are predominantly wealthy, both have a significantly large population of poor and homeless. Perhaps the most significant difference between the resident demographics is the racial makeup. Washington, DC, is a “minority majority” city, which means the majority of its citizens are races other than white. In 2009, according to the US Census, 55 percent of DC residents were classified as “Black or African American” and 35 percent of its residents were classified as “white.” London, by contrast, has very few minorities—in 2006, 70 percent of its population was “white,” while only 10 percent was “black.” The racial demographic differences between the cities is drastic.

Even though Washington, DC, and London are major capital cities of English-speaking countries in the Western world, they have many differences along with their similarities. They have vastly different histories, art cultures, and racial demographics, but they remain similar in their cost of living and socioeconomic disparity.


  • A compare-and-contrast essay analyzes two subjects by either comparing them, contrasting them, or both.
  • The purpose of writing a comparison or contrast essay is not to state the obvious but rather to illuminate subtle differences or unexpected similarities between two subjects.
  • The thesis should clearly state the subjects that are to be compared, contrasted, or both, and it should state what is to be learned from doing so.
  • There are two main organizing strategies for compare-and-contrast essays.
    1. Organize by the subjects themselves, one then the other.
    2. Organize by individual points, in which you discuss each subject in relation to each point.
  • Use phrases of comparison or phrases of contrast to signal to readers how exactly the two subjects are being analyzed.

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Compare/Contrast Papers

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Goal: To explore the similarities and
differences between two texts.

To begin

Think about the arguments and evidence presented in each text. Try
to identify each author’s thesis statement.

Thesis Statement

The thesis statement of a comparison/contrast paper should contain an idea
or claim that unites a discussion of the texts. The thesis statement
should also include the argument that will be advanced in support of the
claim that is being made.

Methods of Organization

Organization is critical to a Compare/Contrast paper. Because you will
most likely be discussing a variety of evidence, you will have to be
certain that your logic can be understood by the reader. Working from an
outline might simplify your task and enable you to evaluate your own

1st Method:

I. Introduction

A. Briefly introduce the significance of subjext matter

B. Thesis Statement

  • First supporting point
  • Second supporting point
  • Third supporting point
  • II. First work

    A. Summary of work

  • Relationship of work to first point
  • Relationship of work to second point
  • Relationship of work to third point
  • III. Second work

    (same structure)

    IV. Third work

    (same structure)

    V. Conclusion

    A. Restate thesis

    B. Summarize how you proved your argument

    2nd Method:

    I. Introduction

    A. Briefly introduce significance of subject matter

    B. Thesis statement

    II. Brief explanation of Work 1

    III. Brief explanation of Work 2

    IV. First comparative point

    A. Relation of point to 1st work

    B. Relation of point to 2nd work

    V. Second comparative point (same)

    VI. Third comparative point (same)

    VII. Conclusion

    A. Restate thesis

    B. Summarize how your proved your argument

    Let’s look at a working example of the 2nd method, which is more commonly

    2nd method: Compare and contrast the Fascist regime
    created by Hitler and the Totalitarian system under Stalin, paying
    particular attention to their methods of creating and manipulating

    I. Introduction

  • First work — Hitler used parades, convention meetings and visual
    propaganda to unite a group of followers and create feelings of
  • Second work — Stalin also used visual propaganda to unite a group of
    followers; however, he also resorted to methods of mass terror, through
    purges and gulag camps, to create a feeling of Soviet nationalism.
  • Thesis statement — In this paper I will argue that through
    the use of “brotherhood,” charisma, education and propaganda, Hitler
    created stronger feelings of nationalism and loyalty among his followers
    than did Stalin, who relied far too much upon mass terror.
  • II. Explain the Hitler regime,
    specifically the key characteristics that define it as a
    Fascist political system.

    III. Explain the Stalin regime,
    specifically the key characteristics that define it as a
    Totalitarian political system.

    IV. First comparative point — How
    each leader made use of the concept of “brotherhood”

  • Relation of point to first work
  • Relation of point to second work
  • Use specific examples from the readings and texts to support your
  • V. Second comparative point
    Charismatic qualities of each leader (same structure)

    VI. Third comparative point — Use of
    education and propaganda (same structure)

    VII. Conclusion

  • Restate thesis
  • Brief summary of how you proved your argument

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