Causes, Effects and Solutions of Land Pollution - BepalInfo

Causes, Effects and Solutions of Land Pollution

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What is Land Pollution?

When we talk about air or water pollution , the reactions garnered are stronger. This is because we can see the effects caused by the pollutants and their extent very clearly. It is normal human psychology to believe in what you see first hand.  Our land on the other hand is living a nightmare too. We may not be able to see the effects with clarity, but land is being polluted and abused constantly and we are unable to calculate the damages incurred. Land Pollution has come to become one of the serious concerns that we collectively battle.

Land pollution, in other words, means degradation or destruction of earth’s surface and soil, directly or indirectly as a result of human activities. Anthropogenic activities are conducted citing development, and the same affects the land drastically, we witness land pollution; by drastic we are referring to any activity that lessens the quality and/or productivity of the land as an ideal place for agriculture, forestation, construction etc. The degradation of land that could be used constructively in other words is land pollution.

Land Pollution has led to a series of issues that we have come to realize in recent times, after decades of neglect. The increasing numbers of barren land plots and the decreasing numbers of forest cover is at an alarming ratio. Moreover the extension of cities and towns due to increasing population is leading to further exploitation of the land. Land fills and reclamations are being planned and executed to meet the increased demand of lands. This leads to further deterioration of land, and pollution caused by the land fill contents. Also due to the lack of green cover, the land gets affected in several ways like soil erosion occurs washing away the fertile portions of the land. Or even a landslide can be seen as an example.

Causes of Land Pollution

Below are the sources of land pollution:

1. Deforestation and soil erosion: Deforestation carried out to create dry lands is one of the major concerns. Land that is once converted into a dry or barren land, can never be made fertile again, whatever the magnitude of  measures to redeem it are. Land conversion, meaning the alteration or modification of the original properties of the land to make it use-worthy for a specific purpose is another major cause. This hampers the land immensely. Also there is a constant waste of land. Unused available land over the years turns barren; this land then cannot be used. So in search of more land, potent land is hunted and its indigenous state is compromised with.

2. Agricultural activities: With growing human population, demand for food has increased considerably. Farmers often use highly toxic fertilizers and pesticides to get rid off insects, fungi and bacteria from their crops. However with the overuse of these chemicals, they result in contamination and poisoning of soil.

3. Mining activities: During extraction and mining activities, several land spaces are created beneath the surface. We constant hear about land caving in; this is nothing but nature’s way of filling the spaces left out after mining or extraction activity.

4. Overcrowded landfills: Each household produces tonnes of garbage each year. Garbage like aluminum, plastic, paper, cloth, wood is collected and sent to the local recycling unit. Items that can not be recycled become a part of the landfills that hampers the beauty of the city and cause land pollution.

5. Industrialization: Due to increase in demand for food, shelter and house, more goods are produced. This resulted in creation of more waste that needs to be disposed of.  To meet the demand of the growing population, more industries were developed which led to deforestation. Research and development paved the way for modern fertilizers and chemicals that were highly toxic and led to soil contamination.

6. Construction activities: Due to urbanization, large amount of construction activities are taking place which has resulted in large waste articles like wood, metal, bricks, plastic that can be seen by naked eyes outside any building or office which is under construction.

7. Nuclear waste: Nuclear plants can produce huge amount of energy through nuclear fission and fusion. The left over radioactive material contains harmful and toxic chemicals that can affect human health. They are dumped beneath the earth to avoid any casualty.

8. Sewage treatment: Large amount of solid waste is leftover once the sewage has been treated. The leftover material is sent to landfill site which end up in polluting the environment.

Effects of Land Pollution

1. Soil pollution: Soil pollution is another form of land pollution, where the upper layer of the soil is damaged. This is caused by the overuse of chemical fertilizers, soil erosion caused by running water and other pest control measures; this leads to loss of fertile land for agriculture, forest cover, fodder patches for grazing etc.

2. Change in climate patterns: The effects of land pollution are very hazardous and can lead to the loss of ecosystems. When land is polluted, it directly or indirectly affects the climate patterns .

3. Environmental Impact: When deforestation is committed, the tree cover is compromised on. This leads to a steep imbalance in the rain cycle. A disturbed rain cycle affects a lot of factors. To begin with, the green cover is reduced. Trees and plants help balance the atmosphere, without them we are subjected to various concerns like Global warming , the green house effect , irregular rainfall and flash floods among other imbalances.

4. Effect on human health: The land when contaminated with toxic chemicals and pesticides lead to problem of skin cancer and human respiratory system. The toxic chemicals can reach our body through foods and vegetables that we eat as they are grown in polluted soil.

5. Cause Air pollution: Landfills across the city keep on growing due to increase in waste and are later burned which leads to air pollution. They become home for rodents, mice etc which in turn transmit diseases.

6. Distraction for Tourist: The city looses its attraction as tourist destination as landfills do not look good when you move around the city. It leads to loss of revenue for the state government.

7. Effect on wildlife: The animal kingdom has suffered mostly in the past decades. They face a serious threat with regards to loss of habitat and natural environment. The constant human activity on land, is leaving it polluted; forcing these species to move further away and adapt to new regions or die trying to adjust. Several species are pushed to the verge of extinction, due to no homeland.

Other issues that we face include increased temperature, unseasonal weather activity, acid rains etc.  The discharge of chemicals on land, makes it dangerous for the ecosystem too. These chemicals are consumed by the animals and plants and thereby make their way in the ecosystem. This process is called bio magnification and is a serious threat to the ecology.

Solutions for Land Pollution

1. Make people aware about the concept of Reduce, Recycle and Reuse.

2. Reduce the use of pesticides and fertilizers in agricultural activities.

3. Avoid buying packages items as they will lead to garbage and end up in landfill site.

4. Ensure that you do not litter on the ground and do proper disposal of garbage.

5. Buy biodegradable products.

6. Do Organic gardening and eat organic food that will be grown without the use of pesticides.

7. Create dumping ground away from residential areas.

Several creatures survive under the land too. Disrupting the harmony of the land, is disrupting their habitat. This has led to several creatures reaching the endangered status like the Gilbert’s Potoroo in Australia.

We walk and survive on land. It is literally the base of our ecosystem. It is in our good interest to take care of it and nurture it.

Image Credit:  alyousifi ,  alexiperplexy
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Air Pollution, Water Pollution And Land Pollution


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Published: Fri, 10 Jun 2016


‘POLLUTION’, the most commonly used word in our everyday life relating to the destruction of the natural air we breathe, the water we drink and the land we live on. No doubt the world is rapidly developing in every area possible which makes our lives much easier to live but on the other hand forgetting that we ourselves are destroying the natural resources. Many environmental researches have proved that it is because of the rapid growth in technology and other areas of growth that leads to a massive increase the growth of pollution. The unexpected pollution caused is mainly due to the human activities such as globalization, industrialization, and expanding increase in technology. This change is experienced not in a short term but in a long run, when it slowly started affecting people.

Pollution can be formally defined as the undesirable and unintended contamination of the environment by human activities such as manufacturing, waste disposal, burning fossil fuels etc. The effect of pollution can be experienced in different ways. The most common ways of pollution are:

Air pollution

Water pollution

Land pollution.


This tern is not something new, it has been existing since he time of industrial revolution where in big chimneys are pointed out in the air which releases harmful gases into the atmosphere. This phenomenon has been increasing since then as the industries have been developing simultaneously. Today, air pollutants have shown a great effect on plantations, health and life, decreasing the enjoyment of living, rising medical costs, causes global warming and also causes the destruction of the ozone layer.

One of the major causes of air pollution is the release of carbon di oxide into the atmosphere. This happens because of deforestation and fossil fuel burning. Sulfur dioxide is another main air polluter and is released into the atmosphere by the burning of sulfur containing compounds of fossil fuels. Sulfur dioxide is very harmful for the humans on high concentration and sulfur in the atmosphere is the main cause of acid rains. Chlorofluorocarbons also contribute to air pollution by reducing the ozone layer in the stratosphere. CFC’s are produced by the burning of plastic foam items, leaking refrigerator equipment and spray cans.


Contamination of available natural water by industrial wastes and other waste products can be defined as water pollution. Factors causing water pollution can be categorized into two different groups; Point sources and Non- point sources.

Point sources are easy to identify and control. Some point sources of water pollution include waste products from factories, waste from sewage, waste from power plants , waste from underground coal mines and waste from oil wells. They are called point sources because these are the direct sources of water pollution and be reduced and monitored.

Non- point sources are ambiguously defined and are much harder to control. The term non -point source encompasses a large range of sources like when rain and snow moves through the ground and picks up major pollutants and mover towards a major body of water, the runoff of fertilizers from farms animals and crop lands, air pollutants getting washed or deposited to earth, and storm water drained from streets parking lots and lawns.


The contamination of and with different kinds of wastes is called land pollution. The major causes of land pollution are construction, domestic waste , industrial waste and agriculture.

The rising construction of building takes away the trees that takes away the homes of the animals living there. As there are more and more people inhabiting on our planet, the demand for food increases and the forests are cut down to make farm lands. In addition, Herbicides, pesticides, artificial fertilizers and animal manure are washed into the soil and pollute it. Tons of domestic waste is dumped everyday from homes offices etc. They can be recycled or burnt in incinerators. There are still more waste machinery products such as refrigerators and washing machines that are dumped in landfills simply because they cannot be recycled. Plastic factories, oil refineries, nuclear waste disposals, and large animal farms, all lead to land pollution.


We can help to reduce global air pollution and climate change by few ways:

Driving a car that gets at least 35 mpg, walking, biking, and using public transportation, using CFL bulbs over incandescent bulbs, buying only energy efficient appliances, recycling newspaper, aluminum, and others, planting trees, avoid purchasing products that contains CFC’s, supporting much stricter clean air laws and enforcement of international treaties to reduce ozone depletion and slow global warming.

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