&#39

&#39

Nicholas Sparks

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to navigation
Jump to search

For other uses, see Nicholas Sparks (disambiguation) .
Nicholas Sparks
Sparks signing autographs in 2006

Sparks signing autographs in 2006
BornNicholas Charles Sparks
(1965-12-31) December 31, 1965 (age 52)
Omaha, Nebraska , United States
Occupation Novelist
Screenwriter
Producer
Alma mater University of Notre Dame
Genre Romantic fiction
Romantic drama
Spouse
Cathy Cote
( m. 1989; div. 2015)
Children5
Website
www.nicholassparks.com

Nicholas Charles Sparks (born December 31, 1965) is an American romance novelist and screenwriter . He has published twenty novels and two non-fiction books. Several of his novels have become international bestsellers, and eleven of his romantic-drama novels have been adapted to film all with multimillion-dollar box office grosses. [1]

Sparks was born in Omaha, Nebraska and wrote his first novel, The Passing, in 1985, while a student at the University of Notre Dame . His first published work came in 1990, when he co-wrote with Billy Mills Wokini: A Lakota Journey to Happiness and Self-Understanding, which sold approximately 50,000 copies in its first year.
In 1993, Sparks wrote his breakthrough novel The Notebook in his spare time while selling pharmaceuticals in Washington, D.C. . Two years later, his novel was discovered by literary agent Theresa Park who offered to represent him. The novel was published in October 1996 and made the New York Times best-seller list in its first week of release.

Contents

  • 1 Early life
  • 2 Career
  • 3 Personal life
  • 4 Published works
  • 5 Adaptations in other media
    • 5.1 Film
    • 5.2 TV
  • 6 References
  • 7 External links

Early life[ edit ]

Nicholas Sparks was born on December 31, 1965 in Omaha, Nebraska to Patrick Michael Sparks, a future professor of business , and Jill Emma Marie Sparks ( née Thoene), a homemaker and an optometrist ‘s assistant. Nicholas was the second of three children, with an older brother, Michael Earl “Micah” Sparks (born 1964), and a younger sister, Danielle “Dana” Sparks (1966–2000), who died at the age of 33 from a brain tumor. Sparks has said that she was the inspiration for the main character in his novel A Walk to Remember .

Sparks was raised in the Roman Catholic faith, [2] and is of German , Czech , English , and Irish ancestry. He and his ex-wife are Catholics and are raising their children in the Catholic faith. [3]

His father pursued graduate studies at University of Minnesota and University of Southern California , one reason for his family’s frequent moves. By the time Sparks was eight, he had lived in Watertown, Minnesota ; Inglewood, California ; Playa Del Rey, California and his mother’s hometown of Grand Island, Nebraska for a year, during which his parents were separated . By 1974 his father became a professor of business at California State University, Sacramento , and the family settled in Fair Oaks, California .

The family remained there through Sparks’ high school days, and in 1984, he graduated as the valedictorian of Bella Vista High School . After being offered a full sports scholarship for track and field , at the University of Notre Dame , Sparks accepted and enrolled, majoring in business finance . In 1988, while on spring break, he met his future wife, Cathy Cote of New Hampshire , and then concluded his early academic work by graduating from Notre Dame with honors . Sparks and Cote would be married on July 22, 1989, and they moved to New Bern, North Carolina . Prior to those milestones, however, Sparks had begun writing in his early college years.

Career[ edit ]

Sparks decided to start writing based on a simple remark from his mother when he was 19 years old that introduced him to the possibility:

‘”Your problem is that you’re bored. You need to find something to do…” Then she looked at me and said the words that would eventually change my life: “Write a book.” Until that moment, I had never considered writing. Granted, I read all the time, but actually sitting down and coming up with a story on my own? …I was nineteen years old and had become an accidental author. [4]

In 1985, while at home for the summer between his freshman and sophomore years at Notre Dame, Sparks penned his first – though never published – novel entitled The Passing. He wrote another novel in 1989, also unpublished called The Royal Murders.

After college, Sparks sought both work with publishers, and applied to law school, but was rejected in both attempts. He then spent the next three years trying other careers, including real estate appraisal , waiting tables, selling dental products by phone and starting his own manufacturing business.

In 1990, Sparks co-wrote a book with Billy Mills entitled Wokini: A Lakota Journey to Happiness and Self-Understanding, [5] a nonfiction book about the influence of Lakota spiritual beliefs and practices. The book was published by Feather Publishing, Random House , and Hay House , and sales for this first book approximated 50,000 copies in its first year after release. [6]

In 1992, Sparks began selling pharmaceuticals , and in 1993 was transferred to Washington, D.C. . It was there that he wrote another novel in his spare time, The Notebook . [7] Two years later, he was discovered by literary agent Theresa Park , who picked The Notebook out of her agency’s slush pile , liked it, and offered to represent him. In October 1995, Park secured a $1 million advance for The Notebook from Time Warner Book Group . The novel was published in October 1996 and made the New York Times best-seller list in its first week of release.

With the success of his first novel, he moved to New Bern, North Carolina . He subsequently wrote several international bestsellers, and several of his novels have been adapted as films: Message in a Bottle (1999), A Walk to Remember (2002), The Notebook (2004), Nights in Rodanthe (2008), Dear John (2010), The Last Song (2010), The Lucky One (2012), Safe Haven (2013), The Best of Me (2014), The Longest Ride (2015), and The Choice (2016). He has also sold the screenplay adaptations of True Believer and At First Sight. His 2016 novel, Two by Two, sold about 98,000 copies during the first week after release. [8] [9] 11 of Nicholas Sparks’ novels have been #1 New York Times Best Sellers.

Personal life[ edit ]

Sparks and his then-wife Cathy lived together in New Bern, North Carolina with their three sons and twin daughters until 2014. On January 6, 2015, Sparks announced that he and Cathy had amicably separated. They subsequently divorced. [10]

Sparks donated $9,000,000 for a new, all-weather tartan track to New Bern High School along with his time to help coach the New Bern High School track team and a local club track team as a volunteer head coach. [11]

Sparks contributes to other local and national charities, as well, including the Creative Writing Program (MFA) at the University of Notre Dame by funding scholarships, internships and annual fellowships. In 2008, Entertainment Weekly reported that Sparks and his then-wife had donated “close to $10 million” to start a Christian, international, college-prep private school , The Epiphany School of Global Studies, which emphasizes travel and lifelong learning. [12] [13] He was later sued by the headmaster of this school who accused Sparks of homophobia, racism and anti-semitism. [14] In his spare time, Sparks volunteers at his local retirement home.

Published works[ edit ]

  • Wokini: A Lakota Journey to Happiness and Self-Understanding (1990), Nicholas Sparks and Billy Mills .
  • The Notebook (October 1996)
  • Message in a Bottle (April 1998)
  • A Walk to Remember (October 1999)
  • The Rescue (September 2000)
  • A Bend in the Road (September 2001)
  • Nights in Rodanthe (September 2002)
  • The Guardian (April 2003)
  • The Wedding (September 2003)
  • Three Weeks with My Brother (April 2004), Nicholas Sparks and Micah Sparks
  • True Believer (April 2005)
  • At First Sight (October 2005)
  • Dear John (October 2006)
  • The Choice (September 2007)
  • The Lucky One (September 2008)
  • The Last Song (September 2009)
  • Safe Haven (September 2010)
  • The Best of Me (October 2011)
  • The Longest Ride (September 2013)
  • See Me (October 2015)
  • Two by Two (October 2016)
  • Every Breath (October 2018) [15]

Adaptations in other media[ edit ]

Film[ edit ]

YearFilmDirector RT critics’
approval rating
BudgetWorldwide
Gross
1999 Message in a Bottle Luis Mandoki32%$80 million$118,880,016
2002 A Walk to Remember Adam Shankman27%$12 million$47,494,916
2004 The Notebook Nick Cassavetes52%$29 million$115,603,229
2008 Nights in Rodanthe George C. Wolfe30%N/A$84,375,061
2010 Dear John Lasse Hallström29%$25 million$114,977,104
The Last Song Julie Anne Robinson20%$20 million$89,041,656
2012 The Lucky One Scott Hicks20%$25 million$99,357,138
2013 Safe Haven Lasse Hallström12%$28 million$97,594,140
2014 The Best of Me Michael Hoffman8%$26 million$35,926,213
2015 The Longest Ride George Tillman Jr.30%$34 million$62,944,815
2016 The Choice Ross Katz12%$10 million$23,420,878
Total/Average24%$288 million$889,615,166

TV[ edit ]

YearSeriesCreditDirector/ShowrunnerNetwork RT critics’
approval rating
2014 Deliverance Creek [16] [17] Executive producer Jon Amiel Lifetime50%
TBA Untitled The Notebook follow-up [16] [17] Characters based on
The Notebook
TBA The CWTBD

References[ edit ]

  1. ^ “Nicholas Sparks Movies at the Box Office – Box Office Mojo” . 
  2. ^ “Author Nicholas Spark remembers his Catholic roots” . Catholic-doc.org. 1999-11-04. Archived from the original on September 22, 2010. Retrieved 2009-08-09. 
  3. ^ “Morality in Hollywood: An Interview with Author Nicholas Sparks” . 
  4. ^ Nicholas Sparks mother and Nicholas Sparks as quoted in: Three Weeks with My Brother , pp. 183-184
  5. ^ Billy Mills; Nicholas Sparks (July 1999). Wokini: A Lakota Journey to Happiness and Self-Understanding. Hay House . p. 176. ISBN   978-1-56170-660-0 . 
  6. ^ “Nicholas Sparks” . Ferrum College . Archived from the original on November 25, 2015. Retrieved August 3, 2014. 
  7. ^ “Biography for Nicholas Sparks” . Book Browse. Retrieved March 26, 2006. 
  8. ^ Good Morning America ABC TV, interview about the book “Two By Two”, October 3, 2016
  9. ^ “King of the love story turns to divorce”. Toronto Star, October 21, 2016. page E6
  10. ^ Nudd, Tim (6 January 2015). “Nicholas Sparks and Wife Separate” . People . 
  11. ^ Buckley Cohen, Adam. “Nicholas Sparks.” Runner’s World 43.12 (2008): 70-71. Web. 29 Sept. 2012.
  12. ^ Valby, Karen (October 10, 2008). “True Believer The chemistry of Nicholas Sparks — The Notebook and Nights in Rodanthe scribe has penned 14 bestsellers in 14 years” . Entertainment Weekly . Retrieved 2009-09-03. 
  13. ^ “The Epiphany School: Welcome” . Archived from the original on September 23, 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-27. 
  14. ^ Amanda Holpuch (2014-10-02), “Lawsuit accuses Nicholas Sparks of racism, antisemitism and homophobia” , The Guardian, ISSN   0261-3077 , https://www.theguardian.com/books/2014/oct/02/nicholas-sparks-racism-homophobic-jewish-lawsuit . Retrieved 2017-08-26He later hired a new headmaster. 
  15. ^ http://top-knig.ru/nikolas-sparks/
  16. ^ a b “Noah and Allie Forever! The CW Is Developing The Notebook for TV” . 
  17. ^ a b Creative, The Uprising. “Nicholas Sparks” . 

External links[ edit ]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Nicholas Sparks
  • Official website
  • Nicholas Sparks on IMDb
  • v
  • t
  • e
Nicholas Sparks
Novels
  • The Notebook (1996)
  • Message in a Bottle (1998)
  • A Walk to Remember (1999)
  • The Rescue (2000)
  • A Bend in the Road (2001)
  • Nights in Rodanthe (2002)
  • The Guardian (2003)
  • The Wedding (2003)
  • True Believer (2005)
  • At First Sight (2006)
  • Dear John (2006)
  • The Choice (2007)
  • The Lucky One (2008)
  • The Last Song (2009)
  • Safe Haven (2010)
  • The Best of Me (2011)
  • The Longest Ride (2013)
  • See Me (2015)
  • Two by Two (2016)
  • Every Breath (2018)
Non-fiction
  • Wokini: A Lakota Journey to Happiness and Self-Understanding (1990)
  • Three Weeks with My Brother (2004)
Film adaptations
  • Message in a Bottle (1999)
  • A Walk to Remember (2002)
  • The Notebook (2004)
  • Nights in Rodanthe (2008)
  • Dear John (2010)
  • The Last Song (2010)
  • The Lucky One (2012)
  • Safe Haven (2013)
  • The Best of Me (2014)
  • The Longest Ride (2015)
  • The Choice (2016)
Authority control Edit this at Wikidata
  • WorldCat Identities
  • BIBSYS : 90981577
  • BNE : XX887444
  • BNF : cb130864374 (data)
  • GND : 11818606X
  • ISNI : 0000 0000 8186 7503
  • LCCN : n93080658
  • MusicBrainz : e0f72d99-cdcc-43b8-a305-02d7f9a165ed
  • NDL : 00541078
  • NKC : mzk2002105443
  • NLA : 35344001
  • SUDOC : 057441472
  • VIAF : 117604749

Retrieved from ” https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nicholas_Sparks&oldid=858433424 ”
Categories :

  • 1965 births
  • 20th-century American novelists
  • 21st-century American novelists
  • American film producers
  • American male novelists
  • American male screenwriters
  • American manufacturing businesspeople
  • American people of Czech descent
  • American people of English descent
  • American people of German descent
  • American people of Irish descent
  • American philanthropists
  • American Roman Catholics
  • American romantic fiction writers
  • American romantic fiction novelists
  • Businesspeople from Omaha, Nebraska
  • Businesspeople in the pharmaceutical industry
  • Film producers from California
  • Living people
  • Notre Dame Fighting Irish men’s track and field athletes
  • People from New Bern, North Carolina
  • Roman Catholic writers
  • University of Notre Dame alumni
  • Writers from Nebraska
  • Novelists from North Carolina
  • Writers from Sacramento, California
  • People from Fair Oaks, California
  • 20th-century male writers
  • 21st-century male writers
Hidden categories:

  • Pages using Infobox writer with unknown parameters
  • Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers
  • Wikipedia articles with BNE identifiers
  • Wikipedia articles with BNF identifiers
  • Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers
  • Wikipedia articles with ISNI identifiers
  • Wikipedia articles with LCCN identifiers
  • Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers
  • Wikipedia articles with NDL identifiers
  • Wikipedia articles with NKC identifiers
  • Wikipedia articles with NLA identifiers
  • Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers
  • Wikipedia articles with VIAF identifiers

Navigation menu

Personal tools

  • Not logged in
  • Talk
  • Contributions
  • Create account
  • Log in

Namespaces

  • Article
  • Talk

Variants

    Views

    • Read
    • Edit
    • View history

    More


      Navigation

      • Main page
      • Contents
      • Featured content
      • Current events
      • Random article
      • Donate to Wikipedia
      • Wikipedia store

      Interaction

      • Help
      • About Wikipedia
      • Community portal
      • Recent changes
      • Contact page

      Tools

      • What links here
      • Related changes
      • Upload file
      • Special pages
      • Permanent link
      • Page information
      • Wikidata item
      • Cite this page

      Print/export

      • Create a book
      • Download as PDF
      • Printable version

      In other projects

      • Wikimedia Commons
      • Wikiquote

      Languages

      • العربية
      • Azərbaycanca
      • تۆرکجه
      • Български
      • Català
      • Čeština
      • Dansk
      • Deutsch
      • Eesti
      • Ελληνικά
      • Español
      • فارسی
      • Français
      • Galego
      • 한국어
      • Հայերեն
      • हिन्दी
      • Bahasa Indonesia
      • Italiano
      • עברית
      • ქართული
      • Қазақша
      • Magyar
      • Македонски
      • Bahasa Melayu
      • Nederlands
      • नेपाली
      • 日本語
      • Polski
      • Português
      • Română
      • Русский
      • Shqip
      • Slovenčina
      • Српски / srpski
      • Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски
      • Suomi
      • Svenska
      • Tagalog
      • ไทย
      • Türkçe
      • Українська
      • 中文
      Edit links

      • This page was last edited on 7 September 2018, at 04:25 (UTC).
      • Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License ;
        additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy . Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. , a non-profit organization.
      • Privacy policy
      • About Wikipedia
      • Disclaimers
      • Contact Wikipedia
      • Developers
      • Cookie statement
      • Mobile view
      • Wikimedia Foundation
      • Powered by MediaWiki

      Nicholas Sparks

      From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

      Jump to navigation
      Jump to search

      For other uses, see Nicholas Sparks (disambiguation) .
      Nicholas Sparks
      Sparks signing autographs in 2006

      Sparks signing autographs in 2006
      BornNicholas Charles Sparks
      (1965-12-31) December 31, 1965 (age 52)
      Omaha, Nebraska , United States
      Occupation Novelist
      Screenwriter
      Producer
      Alma mater University of Notre Dame
      Genre Romantic fiction
      Romantic drama
      Spouse
      Cathy Cote
      ( m. 1989; div. 2015)
      Children5
      Website
      www.nicholassparks.com

      Nicholas Charles Sparks (born December 31, 1965) is an American romance novelist and screenwriter . He has published twenty novels and two non-fiction books. Several of his novels have become international bestsellers, and eleven of his romantic-drama novels have been adapted to film all with multimillion-dollar box office grosses. [1]

      Sparks was born in Omaha, Nebraska and wrote his first novel, The Passing, in 1985, while a student at the University of Notre Dame . His first published work came in 1990, when he co-wrote with Billy Mills Wokini: A Lakota Journey to Happiness and Self-Understanding, which sold approximately 50,000 copies in its first year.
      In 1993, Sparks wrote his breakthrough novel The Notebook in his spare time while selling pharmaceuticals in Washington, D.C. . Two years later, his novel was discovered by literary agent Theresa Park who offered to represent him. The novel was published in October 1996 and made the New York Times best-seller list in its first week of release.

      Contents

      • 1 Early life
      • 2 Career
      • 3 Personal life
      • 4 Published works
      • 5 Adaptations in other media
        • 5.1 Film
        • 5.2 TV
      • 6 References
      • 7 External links

      Early life[ edit ]

      Nicholas Sparks was born on December 31, 1965 in Omaha, Nebraska to Patrick Michael Sparks, a future professor of business , and Jill Emma Marie Sparks ( née Thoene), a homemaker and an optometrist ‘s assistant. Nicholas was the second of three children, with an older brother, Michael Earl “Micah” Sparks (born 1964), and a younger sister, Danielle “Dana” Sparks (1966–2000), who died at the age of 33 from a brain tumor. Sparks has said that she was the inspiration for the main character in his novel A Walk to Remember .

      Sparks was raised in the Roman Catholic faith, [2] and is of German , Czech , English , and Irish ancestry. He and his ex-wife are Catholics and are raising their children in the Catholic faith. [3]

      His father pursued graduate studies at University of Minnesota and University of Southern California , one reason for his family’s frequent moves. By the time Sparks was eight, he had lived in Watertown, Minnesota ; Inglewood, California ; Playa Del Rey, California and his mother’s hometown of Grand Island, Nebraska for a year, during which his parents were separated . By 1974 his father became a professor of business at California State University, Sacramento , and the family settled in Fair Oaks, California .

      The family remained there through Sparks’ high school days, and in 1984, he graduated as the valedictorian of Bella Vista High School . After being offered a full sports scholarship for track and field , at the University of Notre Dame , Sparks accepted and enrolled, majoring in business finance . In 1988, while on spring break, he met his future wife, Cathy Cote of New Hampshire , and then concluded his early academic work by graduating from Notre Dame with honors . Sparks and Cote would be married on July 22, 1989, and they moved to New Bern, North Carolina . Prior to those milestones, however, Sparks had begun writing in his early college years.

      Career[ edit ]

      Sparks decided to start writing based on a simple remark from his mother when he was 19 years old that introduced him to the possibility:

      ‘”Your problem is that you’re bored. You need to find something to do…” Then she looked at me and said the words that would eventually change my life: “Write a book.” Until that moment, I had never considered writing. Granted, I read all the time, but actually sitting down and coming up with a story on my own? …I was nineteen years old and had become an accidental author. [4]

      In 1985, while at home for the summer between his freshman and sophomore years at Notre Dame, Sparks penned his first – though never published – novel entitled The Passing. He wrote another novel in 1989, also unpublished called The Royal Murders.

      After college, Sparks sought both work with publishers, and applied to law school, but was rejected in both attempts. He then spent the next three years trying other careers, including real estate appraisal , waiting tables, selling dental products by phone and starting his own manufacturing business.

      In 1990, Sparks co-wrote a book with Billy Mills entitled Wokini: A Lakota Journey to Happiness and Self-Understanding, [5] a nonfiction book about the influence of Lakota spiritual beliefs and practices. The book was published by Feather Publishing, Random House , and Hay House , and sales for this first book approximated 50,000 copies in its first year after release. [6]

      In 1992, Sparks began selling pharmaceuticals , and in 1993 was transferred to Washington, D.C. . It was there that he wrote another novel in his spare time, The Notebook . [7] Two years later, he was discovered by literary agent Theresa Park , who picked The Notebook out of her agency’s slush pile , liked it, and offered to represent him. In October 1995, Park secured a $1 million advance for The Notebook from Time Warner Book Group . The novel was published in October 1996 and made the New York Times best-seller list in its first week of release.

      With the success of his first novel, he moved to New Bern, North Carolina . He subsequently wrote several international bestsellers, and several of his novels have been adapted as films: Message in a Bottle (1999), A Walk to Remember (2002), The Notebook (2004), Nights in Rodanthe (2008), Dear John (2010), The Last Song (2010), The Lucky One (2012), Safe Haven (2013), The Best of Me (2014), The Longest Ride (2015), and The Choice (2016). He has also sold the screenplay adaptations of True Believer and At First Sight. His 2016 novel, Two by Two, sold about 98,000 copies during the first week after release. [8] [9] 11 of Nicholas Sparks’ novels have been #1 New York Times Best Sellers.

      Personal life[ edit ]

      Sparks and his then-wife Cathy lived together in New Bern, North Carolina with their three sons and twin daughters until 2014. On January 6, 2015, Sparks announced that he and Cathy had amicably separated. They subsequently divorced. [10]

      Sparks donated $9,000,000 for a new, all-weather tartan track to New Bern High School along with his time to help coach the New Bern High School track team and a local club track team as a volunteer head coach. [11]

      Sparks contributes to other local and national charities, as well, including the Creative Writing Program (MFA) at the University of Notre Dame by funding scholarships, internships and annual fellowships. In 2008, Entertainment Weekly reported that Sparks and his then-wife had donated “close to $10 million” to start a Christian, international, college-prep private school , The Epiphany School of Global Studies, which emphasizes travel and lifelong learning. [12] [13] He was later sued by the headmaster of this school who accused Sparks of homophobia, racism and anti-semitism. [14] In his spare time, Sparks volunteers at his local retirement home.

      Published works[ edit ]

      • Wokini: A Lakota Journey to Happiness and Self-Understanding (1990), Nicholas Sparks and Billy Mills .
      • The Notebook (October 1996)
      • Message in a Bottle (April 1998)
      • A Walk to Remember (October 1999)
      • The Rescue (September 2000)
      • A Bend in the Road (September 2001)
      • Nights in Rodanthe (September 2002)
      • The Guardian (April 2003)
      • The Wedding (September 2003)
      • Three Weeks with My Brother (April 2004), Nicholas Sparks and Micah Sparks
      • True Believer (April 2005)
      • At First Sight (October 2005)
      • Dear John (October 2006)
      • The Choice (September 2007)
      • The Lucky One (September 2008)
      • The Last Song (September 2009)
      • Safe Haven (September 2010)
      • The Best of Me (October 2011)
      • The Longest Ride (September 2013)
      • See Me (October 2015)
      • Two by Two (October 2016)
      • Every Breath (October 2018) [15]

      Adaptations in other media[ edit ]

      Film[ edit ]

      YearFilmDirector RT critics’
      approval rating
      BudgetWorldwide
      Gross
      1999 Message in a Bottle Luis Mandoki32%$80 million$118,880,016
      2002 A Walk to Remember Adam Shankman27%$12 million$47,494,916
      2004 The Notebook Nick Cassavetes52%$29 million$115,603,229
      2008 Nights in Rodanthe George C. Wolfe30%N/A$84,375,061
      2010 Dear John Lasse Hallström29%$25 million$114,977,104
      The Last Song Julie Anne Robinson20%$20 million$89,041,656
      2012 The Lucky One Scott Hicks20%$25 million$99,357,138
      2013 Safe Haven Lasse Hallström12%$28 million$97,594,140
      2014 The Best of Me Michael Hoffman8%$26 million$35,926,213
      2015 The Longest Ride George Tillman Jr.30%$34 million$62,944,815
      2016 The Choice Ross Katz12%$10 million$23,420,878
      Total/Average24%$288 million$889,615,166

      TV[ edit ]

      YearSeriesCreditDirector/ShowrunnerNetwork RT critics’
      approval rating
      2014 Deliverance Creek [16] [17] Executive producer Jon Amiel Lifetime50%
      TBA Untitled The Notebook follow-up [16] [17] Characters based on
      The Notebook
      TBA The CWTBD

      References[ edit ]

      1. ^ “Nicholas Sparks Movies at the Box Office – Box Office Mojo” . 
      2. ^ “Author Nicholas Spark remembers his Catholic roots” . Catholic-doc.org. 1999-11-04. Archived from the original on September 22, 2010. Retrieved 2009-08-09. 
      3. ^ “Morality in Hollywood: An Interview with Author Nicholas Sparks” . 
      4. ^ Nicholas Sparks mother and Nicholas Sparks as quoted in: Three Weeks with My Brother , pp. 183-184
      5. ^ Billy Mills; Nicholas Sparks (July 1999). Wokini: A Lakota Journey to Happiness and Self-Understanding. Hay House . p. 176. ISBN   978-1-56170-660-0 . 
      6. ^ “Nicholas Sparks” . Ferrum College . Archived from the original on November 25, 2015. Retrieved August 3, 2014. 
      7. ^ “Biography for Nicholas Sparks” . Book Browse. Retrieved March 26, 2006. 
      8. ^ Good Morning America ABC TV, interview about the book “Two By Two”, October 3, 2016
      9. ^ “King of the love story turns to divorce”. Toronto Star, October 21, 2016. page E6
      10. ^ Nudd, Tim (6 January 2015). “Nicholas Sparks and Wife Separate” . People . 
      11. ^ Buckley Cohen, Adam. “Nicholas Sparks.” Runner’s World 43.12 (2008): 70-71. Web. 29 Sept. 2012.
      12. ^ Valby, Karen (October 10, 2008). “True Believer The chemistry of Nicholas Sparks — The Notebook and Nights in Rodanthe scribe has penned 14 bestsellers in 14 years” . Entertainment Weekly . Retrieved 2009-09-03. 
      13. ^ “The Epiphany School: Welcome” . Archived from the original on September 23, 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-27. 
      14. ^ Amanda Holpuch (2014-10-02), “Lawsuit accuses Nicholas Sparks of racism, antisemitism and homophobia” , The Guardian, ISSN   0261-3077 , https://www.theguardian.com/books/2014/oct/02/nicholas-sparks-racism-homophobic-jewish-lawsuit . Retrieved 2017-08-26He later hired a new headmaster. 
      15. ^ http://top-knig.ru/nikolas-sparks/
      16. ^ a b “Noah and Allie Forever! The CW Is Developing The Notebook for TV” . 
      17. ^ a b Creative, The Uprising. “Nicholas Sparks” . 

      External links[ edit ]

      Wikiquote has quotations related to: Nicholas Sparks
      • Official website
      • Nicholas Sparks on IMDb
      • v
      • t
      • e
      Nicholas Sparks
      Novels
      • The Notebook (1996)
      • Message in a Bottle (1998)
      • A Walk to Remember (1999)
      • The Rescue (2000)
      • A Bend in the Road (2001)
      • Nights in Rodanthe (2002)
      • The Guardian (2003)
      • The Wedding (2003)
      • True Believer (2005)
      • At First Sight (2006)
      • Dear John (2006)
      • The Choice (2007)
      • The Lucky One (2008)
      • The Last Song (2009)
      • Safe Haven (2010)
      • The Best of Me (2011)
      • The Longest Ride (2013)
      • See Me (2015)
      • Two by Two (2016)
      • Every Breath (2018)
      Non-fiction
      • Wokini: A Lakota Journey to Happiness and Self-Understanding (1990)
      • Three Weeks with My Brother (2004)
      Film adaptations
      • Message in a Bottle (1999)
      • A Walk to Remember (2002)
      • The Notebook (2004)
      • Nights in Rodanthe (2008)
      • Dear John (2010)
      • The Last Song (2010)
      • The Lucky One (2012)
      • Safe Haven (2013)
      • The Best of Me (2014)
      • The Longest Ride (2015)
      • The Choice (2016)
      Authority control Edit this at Wikidata
      • WorldCat Identities
      • BIBSYS : 90981577
      • BNE : XX887444
      • BNF : cb130864374 (data)
      • GND : 11818606X
      • ISNI : 0000 0000 8186 7503
      • LCCN : n93080658
      • MusicBrainz : e0f72d99-cdcc-43b8-a305-02d7f9a165ed
      • NDL : 00541078
      • NKC : mzk2002105443
      • NLA : 35344001
      • SUDOC : 057441472
      • VIAF : 117604749

      Retrieved from ” https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nicholas_Sparks&oldid=858433424 ”
      Categories :

      • 1965 births
      • 20th-century American novelists
      • 21st-century American novelists
      • American film producers
      • American male novelists
      • American male screenwriters
      • American manufacturing businesspeople
      • American people of Czech descent
      • American people of English descent
      • American people of German descent
      • American people of Irish descent
      • American philanthropists
      • American Roman Catholics
      • American romantic fiction writers
      • American romantic fiction novelists
      • Businesspeople from Omaha, Nebraska
      • Businesspeople in the pharmaceutical industry
      • Film producers from California
      • Living people
      • Notre Dame Fighting Irish men’s track and field athletes
      • People from New Bern, North Carolina
      • Roman Catholic writers
      • University of Notre Dame alumni
      • Writers from Nebraska
      • Novelists from North Carolina
      • Writers from Sacramento, California
      • People from Fair Oaks, California
      • 20th-century male writers
      • 21st-century male writers
      Hidden categories:

      • Pages using Infobox writer with unknown parameters
      • Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers
      • Wikipedia articles with BNE identifiers
      • Wikipedia articles with BNF identifiers
      • Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers
      • Wikipedia articles with ISNI identifiers
      • Wikipedia articles with LCCN identifiers
      • Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers
      • Wikipedia articles with NDL identifiers
      • Wikipedia articles with NKC identifiers
      • Wikipedia articles with NLA identifiers
      • Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers
      • Wikipedia articles with VIAF identifiers

      Navigation menu

      Personal tools

      • Not logged in
      • Talk
      • Contributions
      • Create account
      • Log in

      Namespaces

      • Article
      • Talk

      Variants

        Views

        • Read
        • Edit
        • View history

        More


          Navigation

          • Main page
          • Contents
          • Featured content
          • Current events
          • Random article
          • Donate to Wikipedia
          • Wikipedia store

          Interaction

          • Help
          • About Wikipedia
          • Community portal
          • Recent changes
          • Contact page

          Tools

          • What links here
          • Related changes
          • Upload file
          • Special pages
          • Permanent link
          • Page information
          • Wikidata item
          • Cite this page

          Print/export

          • Create a book
          • Download as PDF
          • Printable version

          In other projects

          • Wikimedia Commons
          • Wikiquote

          Languages

          • العربية
          • Azərbaycanca
          • تۆرکجه
          • Български
          • Català
          • Čeština
          • Dansk
          • Deutsch
          • Eesti
          • Ελληνικά
          • Español
          • فارسی
          • Français
          • Galego
          • 한국어
          • Հայերեն
          • हिन्दी
          • Bahasa Indonesia
          • Italiano
          • עברית
          • ქართული
          • Қазақша
          • Magyar
          • Македонски
          • Bahasa Melayu
          • Nederlands
          • नेपाली
          • 日本語
          • Polski
          • Português
          • Română
          • Русский
          • Shqip
          • Slovenčina
          • Српски / srpski
          • Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски
          • Suomi
          • Svenska
          • Tagalog
          • ไทย
          • Türkçe
          • Українська
          • 中文
          Edit links

          • This page was last edited on 7 September 2018, at 04:25 (UTC).
          • Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License ;
            additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy . Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. , a non-profit organization.
          • Privacy policy
          • About Wikipedia
          • Disclaimers
          • Contact Wikipedia
          • Developers
          • Cookie statement
          • Mobile view
          • Wikimedia Foundation
          • Powered by MediaWiki

          Nicholas Sparks

          From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

          Jump to navigation
          Jump to search

          For other uses, see Nicholas Sparks (disambiguation) .
          Nicholas Sparks
          Sparks signing autographs in 2006

          Sparks signing autographs in 2006
          BornNicholas Charles Sparks
          (1965-12-31) December 31, 1965 (age 52)
          Omaha, Nebraska , United States
          Occupation Novelist
          Screenwriter
          Producer
          Alma mater University of Notre Dame
          Genre Romantic fiction
          Romantic drama
          Spouse
          Cathy Cote
          ( m. 1989; div. 2015)
          Children5
          Website
          www.nicholassparks.com

          Nicholas Charles Sparks (born December 31, 1965) is an American romance novelist and screenwriter . He has published twenty novels and two non-fiction books. Several of his novels have become international bestsellers, and eleven of his romantic-drama novels have been adapted to film all with multimillion-dollar box office grosses. [1]

          Sparks was born in Omaha, Nebraska and wrote his first novel, The Passing, in 1985, while a student at the University of Notre Dame . His first published work came in 1990, when he co-wrote with Billy Mills Wokini: A Lakota Journey to Happiness and Self-Understanding, which sold approximately 50,000 copies in its first year.
          In 1993, Sparks wrote his breakthrough novel The Notebook in his spare time while selling pharmaceuticals in Washington, D.C. . Two years later, his novel was discovered by literary agent Theresa Park who offered to represent him. The novel was published in October 1996 and made the New York Times best-seller list in its first week of release.

          Contents

          • 1 Early life
          • 2 Career
          • 3 Personal life
          • 4 Published works
          • 5 Adaptations in other media
            • 5.1 Film
            • 5.2 TV
          • 6 References
          • 7 External links

          Early life[ edit ]

          Nicholas Sparks was born on December 31, 1965 in Omaha, Nebraska to Patrick Michael Sparks, a future professor of business , and Jill Emma Marie Sparks ( née Thoene), a homemaker and an optometrist ‘s assistant. Nicholas was the second of three children, with an older brother, Michael Earl “Micah” Sparks (born 1964), and a younger sister, Danielle “Dana” Sparks (1966–2000), who died at the age of 33 from a brain tumor. Sparks has said that she was the inspiration for the main character in his novel A Walk to Remember .

          Sparks was raised in the Roman Catholic faith, [2] and is of German , Czech , English , and Irish ancestry. He and his ex-wife are Catholics and are raising their children in the Catholic faith. [3]

          His father pursued graduate studies at University of Minnesota and University of Southern California , one reason for his family’s frequent moves. By the time Sparks was eight, he had lived in Watertown, Minnesota ; Inglewood, California ; Playa Del Rey, California and his mother’s hometown of Grand Island, Nebraska for a year, during which his parents were separated . By 1974 his father became a professor of business at California State University, Sacramento , and the family settled in Fair Oaks, California .

          The family remained there through Sparks’ high school days, and in 1984, he graduated as the valedictorian of Bella Vista High School . After being offered a full sports scholarship for track and field , at the University of Notre Dame , Sparks accepted and enrolled, majoring in business finance . In 1988, while on spring break, he met his future wife, Cathy Cote of New Hampshire , and then concluded his early academic work by graduating from Notre Dame with honors . Sparks and Cote would be married on July 22, 1989, and they moved to New Bern, North Carolina . Prior to those milestones, however, Sparks had begun writing in his early college years.

          Career[ edit ]

          Sparks decided to start writing based on a simple remark from his mother when he was 19 years old that introduced him to the possibility:

          ‘”Your problem is that you’re bored. You need to find something to do…” Then she looked at me and said the words that would eventually change my life: “Write a book.” Until that moment, I had never considered writing. Granted, I read all the time, but actually sitting down and coming up with a story on my own? …I was nineteen years old and had become an accidental author. [4]

          In 1985, while at home for the summer between his freshman and sophomore years at Notre Dame, Sparks penned his first – though never published – novel entitled The Passing. He wrote another novel in 1989, also unpublished called The Royal Murders.

          After college, Sparks sought both work with publishers, and applied to law school, but was rejected in both attempts. He then spent the next three years trying other careers, including real estate appraisal , waiting tables, selling dental products by phone and starting his own manufacturing business.

          In 1990, Sparks co-wrote a book with Billy Mills entitled Wokini: A Lakota Journey to Happiness and Self-Understanding, [5] a nonfiction book about the influence of Lakota spiritual beliefs and practices. The book was published by Feather Publishing, Random House , and Hay House , and sales for this first book approximated 50,000 copies in its first year after release. [6]

          In 1992, Sparks began selling pharmaceuticals , and in 1993 was transferred to Washington, D.C. . It was there that he wrote another novel in his spare time, The Notebook . [7] Two years later, he was discovered by literary agent Theresa Park , who picked The Notebook out of her agency’s slush pile , liked it, and offered to represent him. In October 1995, Park secured a $1 million advance for The Notebook from Time Warner Book Group . The novel was published in October 1996 and made the New York Times best-seller list in its first week of release.

          With the success of his first novel, he moved to New Bern, North Carolina . He subsequently wrote several international bestsellers, and several of his novels have been adapted as films: Message in a Bottle (1999), A Walk to Remember (2002), The Notebook (2004), Nights in Rodanthe (2008), Dear John (2010), The Last Song (2010), The Lucky One (2012), Safe Haven (2013), The Best of Me (2014), The Longest Ride (2015), and The Choice (2016). He has also sold the screenplay adaptations of True Believer and At First Sight. His 2016 novel, Two by Two, sold about 98,000 copies during the first week after release. [8] [9] 11 of Nicholas Sparks’ novels have been #1 New York Times Best Sellers.

          Personal life[ edit ]

          Sparks and his then-wife Cathy lived together in New Bern, North Carolina with their three sons and twin daughters until 2014. On January 6, 2015, Sparks announced that he and Cathy had amicably separated. They subsequently divorced. [10]

          Sparks donated $9,000,000 for a new, all-weather tartan track to New Bern High School along with his time to help coach the New Bern High School track team and a local club track team as a volunteer head coach. [11]

          Sparks contributes to other local and national charities, as well, including the Creative Writing Program (MFA) at the University of Notre Dame by funding scholarships, internships and annual fellowships. In 2008, Entertainment Weekly reported that Sparks and his then-wife had donated “close to $10 million” to start a Christian, international, college-prep private school , The Epiphany School of Global Studies, which emphasizes travel and lifelong learning. [12] [13] He was later sued by the headmaster of this school who accused Sparks of homophobia, racism and anti-semitism. [14] In his spare time, Sparks volunteers at his local retirement home.

          Published works[ edit ]

          • Wokini: A Lakota Journey to Happiness and Self-Understanding (1990), Nicholas Sparks and Billy Mills .
          • The Notebook (October 1996)
          • Message in a Bottle (April 1998)
          • A Walk to Remember (October 1999)
          • The Rescue (September 2000)
          • A Bend in the Road (September 2001)
          • Nights in Rodanthe (September 2002)
          • The Guardian (April 2003)
          • The Wedding (September 2003)
          • Three Weeks with My Brother (April 2004), Nicholas Sparks and Micah Sparks
          • True Believer (April 2005)
          • At First Sight (October 2005)
          • Dear John (October 2006)
          • The Choice (September 2007)
          • The Lucky One (September 2008)
          • The Last Song (September 2009)
          • Safe Haven (September 2010)
          • The Best of Me (October 2011)
          • The Longest Ride (September 2013)
          • See Me (October 2015)
          • Two by Two (October 2016)
          • Every Breath (October 2018) [15]

          Adaptations in other media[ edit ]

          Film[ edit ]

          YearFilmDirector RT critics’
          approval rating
          BudgetWorldwide
          Gross
          1999 Message in a Bottle Luis Mandoki32%$80 million$118,880,016
          2002 A Walk to Remember Adam Shankman27%$12 million$47,494,916
          2004 The Notebook Nick Cassavetes52%$29 million$115,603,229
          2008 Nights in Rodanthe George C. Wolfe30%N/A$84,375,061
          2010 Dear John Lasse Hallström29%$25 million$114,977,104
          The Last Song Julie Anne Robinson20%$20 million$89,041,656
          2012 The Lucky One Scott Hicks20%$25 million$99,357,138
          2013 Safe Haven Lasse Hallström12%$28 million$97,594,140
          2014 The Best of Me Michael Hoffman8%$26 million$35,926,213
          2015 The Longest Ride George Tillman Jr.30%$34 million$62,944,815
          2016 The Choice Ross Katz12%$10 million$23,420,878
          Total/Average24%$288 million$889,615,166

          TV[ edit ]

          YearSeriesCreditDirector/ShowrunnerNetwork RT critics’
          approval rating
          2014 Deliverance Creek [16] [17] Executive producer Jon Amiel Lifetime50%
          TBA Untitled The Notebook follow-up [16] [17] Characters based on
          The Notebook
          TBA The CWTBD

          References[ edit ]

          1. ^ “Nicholas Sparks Movies at the Box Office – Box Office Mojo” . 
          2. ^ “Author Nicholas Spark remembers his Catholic roots” . Catholic-doc.org. 1999-11-04. Archived from the original on September 22, 2010. Retrieved 2009-08-09. 
          3. ^ “Morality in Hollywood: An Interview with Author Nicholas Sparks” . 
          4. ^ Nicholas Sparks mother and Nicholas Sparks as quoted in: Three Weeks with My Brother , pp. 183-184
          5. ^ Billy Mills; Nicholas Sparks (July 1999). Wokini: A Lakota Journey to Happiness and Self-Understanding. Hay House . p. 176. ISBN   978-1-56170-660-0 . 
          6. ^ “Nicholas Sparks” . Ferrum College . Archived from the original on November 25, 2015. Retrieved August 3, 2014. 
          7. ^ “Biography for Nicholas Sparks” . Book Browse. Retrieved March 26, 2006. 
          8. ^ Good Morning America ABC TV, interview about the book “Two By Two”, October 3, 2016
          9. ^ “King of the love story turns to divorce”. Toronto Star, October 21, 2016. page E6
          10. ^ Nudd, Tim (6 January 2015). “Nicholas Sparks and Wife Separate” . People . 
          11. ^ Buckley Cohen, Adam. “Nicholas Sparks.” Runner’s World 43.12 (2008): 70-71. Web. 29 Sept. 2012.
          12. ^ Valby, Karen (October 10, 2008). “True Believer The chemistry of Nicholas Sparks — The Notebook and Nights in Rodanthe scribe has penned 14 bestsellers in 14 years” . Entertainment Weekly . Retrieved 2009-09-03. 
          13. ^ “The Epiphany School: Welcome” . Archived from the original on September 23, 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-27. 
          14. ^ Amanda Holpuch (2014-10-02), “Lawsuit accuses Nicholas Sparks of racism, antisemitism and homophobia” , The Guardian, ISSN   0261-3077 , https://www.theguardian.com/books/2014/oct/02/nicholas-sparks-racism-homophobic-jewish-lawsuit . Retrieved 2017-08-26He later hired a new headmaster. 
          15. ^ http://top-knig.ru/nikolas-sparks/
          16. ^ a b “Noah and Allie Forever! The CW Is Developing The Notebook for TV” . 
          17. ^ a b Creative, The Uprising. “Nicholas Sparks” . 

          External links[ edit ]

          Wikiquote has quotations related to: Nicholas Sparks
          • Official website
          • Nicholas Sparks on IMDb
          • v
          • t
          • e
          Nicholas Sparks
          Novels
          • The Notebook (1996)
          • Message in a Bottle (1998)
          • A Walk to Remember (1999)
          • The Rescue (2000)
          • A Bend in the Road (2001)
          • Nights in Rodanthe (2002)
          • The Guardian (2003)
          • The Wedding (2003)
          • True Believer (2005)
          • At First Sight (2006)
          • Dear John (2006)
          • The Choice (2007)
          • The Lucky One (2008)
          • The Last Song (2009)
          • Safe Haven (2010)
          • The Best of Me (2011)
          • The Longest Ride (2013)
          • See Me (2015)
          • Two by Two (2016)
          • Every Breath (2018)
          Non-fiction
          • Wokini: A Lakota Journey to Happiness and Self-Understanding (1990)
          • Three Weeks with My Brother (2004)
          Film adaptations
          • Message in a Bottle (1999)
          • A Walk to Remember (2002)
          • The Notebook (2004)
          • Nights in Rodanthe (2008)
          • Dear John (2010)
          • The Last Song (2010)
          • The Lucky One (2012)
          • Safe Haven (2013)
          • The Best of Me (2014)
          • The Longest Ride (2015)
          • The Choice (2016)
          Authority control Edit this at Wikidata
          • WorldCat Identities
          • BIBSYS : 90981577
          • BNE : XX887444
          • BNF : cb130864374 (data)
          • GND : 11818606X
          • ISNI : 0000 0000 8186 7503
          • LCCN : n93080658
          • MusicBrainz : e0f72d99-cdcc-43b8-a305-02d7f9a165ed
          • NDL : 00541078
          • NKC : mzk2002105443
          • NLA : 35344001
          • SUDOC : 057441472
          • VIAF : 117604749

          Retrieved from ” https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nicholas_Sparks&oldid=858433424 ”
          Categories :

          • 1965 births
          • 20th-century American novelists
          • 21st-century American novelists
          • American film producers
          • American male novelists
          • American male screenwriters
          • American manufacturing businesspeople
          • American people of Czech descent
          • American people of English descent
          • American people of German descent
          • American people of Irish descent
          • American philanthropists
          • American Roman Catholics
          • American romantic fiction writers
          • American romantic fiction novelists
          • Businesspeople from Omaha, Nebraska
          • Businesspeople in the pharmaceutical industry
          • Film producers from California
          • Living people
          • Notre Dame Fighting Irish men’s track and field athletes
          • People from New Bern, North Carolina
          • Roman Catholic writers
          • University of Notre Dame alumni
          • Writers from Nebraska
          • Novelists from North Carolina
          • Writers from Sacramento, California
          • People from Fair Oaks, California
          • 20th-century male writers
          • 21st-century male writers
          Hidden categories:

          • Pages using Infobox writer with unknown parameters
          • Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers
          • Wikipedia articles with BNE identifiers
          • Wikipedia articles with BNF identifiers
          • Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers
          • Wikipedia articles with ISNI identifiers
          • Wikipedia articles with LCCN identifiers
          • Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers
          • Wikipedia articles with NDL identifiers
          • Wikipedia articles with NKC identifiers
          • Wikipedia articles with NLA identifiers
          • Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers
          • Wikipedia articles with VIAF identifiers

          Navigation menu

          Personal tools

          • Not logged in
          • Talk
          • Contributions
          • Create account
          • Log in

          Namespaces

          • Article
          • Talk

          Variants

            Views

            • Read
            • Edit
            • View history

            More


              Navigation

              • Main page
              • Contents
              • Featured content
              • Current events
              • Random article
              • Donate to Wikipedia
              • Wikipedia store

              Interaction

              • Help
              • About Wikipedia
              • Community portal
              • Recent changes
              • Contact page

              Tools

              • What links here
              • Related changes
              • Upload file
              • Special pages
              • Permanent link
              • Page information
              • Wikidata item
              • Cite this page

              Print/export

              • Create a book
              • Download as PDF
              • Printable version

              In other projects

              • Wikimedia Commons
              • Wikiquote

              Languages

              • العربية
              • Azərbaycanca
              • تۆرکجه
              • Български
              • Català
              • Čeština
              • Dansk
              • Deutsch
              • Eesti
              • Ελληνικά
              • Español
              • فارسی
              • Français
              • Galego
              • 한국어
              • Հայերեն
              • हिन्दी
              • Bahasa Indonesia
              • Italiano
              • עברית
              • ქართული
              • Қазақша
              • Magyar
              • Македонски
              • Bahasa Melayu
              • Nederlands
              • नेपाली
              • 日本語
              • Polski
              • Português
              • Română
              • Русский
              • Shqip
              • Slovenčina
              • Српски / srpski
              • Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски
              • Suomi
              • Svenska
              • Tagalog
              • ไทย
              • Türkçe
              • Українська
              • 中文
              Edit links

              • This page was last edited on 7 September 2018, at 04:25 (UTC).
              • Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License ;
                additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy . Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. , a non-profit organization.
              • Privacy policy
              • About Wikipedia
              • Disclaimers
              • Contact Wikipedia
              • Developers
              • Cookie statement
              • Mobile view
              • Wikimedia Foundation
              • Powered by MediaWiki